Colonial unity and identity in America Essay

By the Eve of the Revolution. the settlers had developed a moderate sense of their individuality and integrity. However. they were still far from holding the complete sense of individuality and integrity necessary for an independent state to boom.

In the early colonial yearss. there was perfectly no colonial integrity. The settlements really saw themselves as challengers. viing for land and trading rights. This left them defenseless against onslaughts by the Indians and the Gallic.

The first effort at making colonial integrity was made by Benjamin Franklin in 1754. after the start of the Gallic and Indian War. This was called the Albany Plan. The Albany Plan called for an intercolonial authorities with the right to revenue enhancement. base on balls Torahs. and supervise military defence. Seven of 13 settlements were represented. To foster his cause. Franklin published a sketch in the Pennsylvania Gazette. The sketch showed eight disjointed pieces of a serpent. each labeled with a settlement. The phrase “Join. or Die” was written at the underside. exemplifying the destiny of the settlements if they failed to unify against the Gallic and Indian menace. The settlements felt it did non give them adequate independency. and as a consequence the Albany Plan was non approved by any of the settlements. showing the deficiency of colonial integrity at this clip.

During the Gallic and Indian War. British General Loudon frequently asked the settlements for military personnels and money to back up the war attempt. The colonial response was sporadic and uncoordinated because they were non yet unified.

The Stamp Act of 1765 sparked colonial indignation because it was the first direct revenue enhancement on the settlements for the intent of raising gross. Patrick Henry passed a declaration protesting all revenue enhancements. and seven other settlements would go through similar declarations.

The Stamp Act Congress was called in 1765 to protest the Stamp Act. Leaderships from nine of the 13 settlements were represented. This meeting brought an terminal to most colonial misgiving. The settlements no longer viewed each other as challengers. but Alliess.

After the failure of the Stamp Act. Parliament debated how America should be governed. Edmund Burke. who frequently supported America. scoffed at the proposal of regulating America “like an English town which happens non to be represented in Parliament. ” He goes on to state that nature will non let America to be lumped into the “Mass” of Great Britain. Here. he indicates that the Americans have gained an individuality all their ain. and are no longer identified as British topics.

However. there was still a deficiency of integrity in the Southern settlements at this clip. The Carolina Regulators wreaked mayhem in North and South Carolina. which showed the beginning of a struggle between western backwoodsmans and the eastern colonial elite that would last until after the Revolution. The Regulators were western Carolina husbandmans arising against the subjugation of the eastern nobility.

A series of letters published by John Dickenson entitled “Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania” divine resistance to the Townshend Acts of 1767. and were reprinted in all 13 settlements. These letters helped spur incorporate opposition to the Townshend Acts in the signifier of non-importation understandings. more normally known as boycotts.

In response to the Dickenson letters. the round missive was written by Samuel Adams in Massachusetts. It besides called for incorporate opposition to the Townshend Acts. and was important because it showed that the New England settlements were at least slightly incorporate with the Middle settlements on this issue.

In 1772. the Gaspee. a British ship. was hassling colonial merchandiser ships and implementing the Sugar Act of 1764. Outraged settlers burned the ship. and were sent to England to be tried. where they were certain to have a much harsher penalty than they would in the Americas. This undermined colonial efforts at self-determination. and therefore damaged the integrity of the settlements.

Samuel Adams founded the first Committee of Correspondence in Boston in 1772. All 13 settlements had these commissions. They functioned like newspapers. and were sent to all the settlements.

Prior to the First Continental Congress. Richard Henry Lee wrote a missive to Arthur Lee saying that the settlements were about wholly unified against the subjugation of the British “Ministry. ” He goes on to state that the settlements are “most steadfastly united and as steadfastly resolved to support their autonomies. ” He was wrong in his premise. Statistics would subsequently demo that. at the clip of the Revolution. merely a 3rd of Americans were nationalists. while a 3rd was impersonal. and the other 3rd remained loyal to Britain.

The celebrated Tory sermonizer Mather Byles represented the Loyalist side of the narrative. He asked. “Which is better. to be ruled by one autocrat 3000 stat mis off. or by 3000 autocrats non a stat mi off? ” Feel-good history allows people to believe that all the settlers were nationalists. but this is merely non true. Some historiographers even say that the nationalists were merely a bantam minority of eastern merchandisers who duped hapless western husbandmans into contending for the merchants’ cause. In this sense. there was ne’er colonial integrity until the U. S. Constitution.

The New England. Middle. and Southern Colonies all came to the assistance of the metropolis of Boston as a consequence of the Boston Port Act of 1774. which was a consequence of the Boston Tea Party in 1773. From Connecticut down to South Carolina. the settlements sent supplies or money to prolong the Boston economic system while the port of Boston was officially closed. This showed that the rebellion was non merely in the North. but all down the seashore every bit good.

The First Continental Congress was called in 1774 in response to the Intolerable Acts. The lone settlement non represented was Georgia. because it still felt slightly disjointed from the remainder of the settlements. Committees of Safety were created as portion of the Congress. They were Continental assemblies for the intent of implementing the boycott of British goods and publicising the names of those who violated the boycott. These were large stairss in colonial integrity. though it was non yet achieved.

During this clip. the Americans. as a consequence of their constantly diversifying European. Indian. and African heritage. were dividing farther and farther from Britain and developing an individuality all their ain. In his Letterss from an American Farmer. Hector St. John Crevecoeur writes that Americans are a “strange mixture of blood which you will happen in no other state. ”

In 1775. the Second Continental Congress met in Philadelphia. All 13 settlements were represented. They met chiefly to do readyings for war with Britain. but they did non run into to declare independency. Even this late. they did non mean to seek independency until Britain basically forced them to make so through the Prohibitory Act. George Washington was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Army.

Despite the evident success of the Second Continental Congress in uniting the settlements. it was comparatively uneffective. and the settlements were still non wholly unified at the clip of the Revolution.

By the Eve of the Revolution. the settlers had developed a moderate sense of their individuality and integrity. However. they were still far from holding the complete sense of individuality and integrity necessary for an independent state to boom.