Corporate Social Responsibility Within A Tourism Tourism Essay

Climate alteration has become a planetary concern in recent old ages. Approximately 5 % of planetary C emanations are caused by Tourism and Travel and by 2035 these emanations are even expected to increase by 130 % . ( Drake, C. 2012 )

Therefore it has become more and more of import for companies particularly in these industries to demo corporate societal duty non merely for image grounds, but to truly be the alteration they want to see go oning in the universe like the paraphrased quotation mark of Ghandi ‘s work suggests.

The chief purpose of this study is to measure the CSR public presentation of the chosen company, Marriott International, Inc. , which is one of the most celebrated hotel ironss worldwide. Therefore a literature reappraisal dwelling of 3 academic articles is executed. Then, the company ‘s history is briefly presented, followed by a description of their CSR programmes and activities. Afterwards links between those programmes and activities and the theoretical issues that have been established in the articles are identified. Finally, this study besides provides recommendations and specifies illustrations of confirmation that confirm the company ‘s part to CSR.

II. Separate A – Literature Reappraisal

Article 1

aˆzAn analysis and appraisal of environmental operating patterns in hotel and resort belongingss ”

Critical issues within Tourism and Events sector

Refering sustainability the following issues have been identified:

As hotel and resort concerns consume important sums of natural resources, they do hold an impact on the sustainability of the natural environment in which they operate.

As companies are pushed frontward to show CSR they impose pressure upon makers to be accountable for the full life rhythm of the merchandises they manufacture ( Coalition for Environmentally Responsible Economics, 2001 ) .

Corporate leading in environmental direction is seen as a drive factor in the success of lodging environmental direction plans.

Harmonizing to Newman and Breeden ( 1992 ) the acceptance of an environmental direction plan would hold several benefits like favorable acknowledgment of environmental attempts by media and stakeholders and the minimisation of hazards and future costs.


In her research survey Scanlon aims to look into the environmental operating patterns of hotels and resorts to place common operating activities and illustrations of “ best patterns ” to finally assist them to more efficaciously implement environmental direction plans. Therefore she reviewed literature in several countries like corporate concern pattern, policy and cordial reception issues.

The focal point of methodological analysis dressed ores on nine lodging instance surveies, which have been reviewed, followed by on-site visits and semi-structured expert and cardinal informant interviews. The distribution of a elaborate study instrument to each of the selected instance survey belongingss supplemented this.

Findingss and links to the literature reappraisal

The writer identified a deficiency of formal, systematic measuring and certification of public-service corporation ingestion rates and costs by single housing belongingss. Corporate benchmarks for public-service corporation ingestion are identified as uneffective with respects to non-affiliated hotels and resorts. Furthermore she states that consumer force per unit area to increase the guest quality degrees of both air quality and noise will convey about both the action and invention like suggested by Porter. Scanlon finds that it ‘s possible to calculate operating cost nest eggs and subsequent additions in the value of gross in a housing operation by the application of specific environmental direction patterns and measuring tools. Furthermore, Scanlon points out that instruction of hotel proprietors and operators is the key to understanding the benefits of implementing environmental direction patterns, as many of them are still incognizant of the salvaging chances.

Article 2

aˆzHotel companies ‘ part to bettering the quality of life of local communities and

the wellbeing of their employees “

Critical issues within the touristry and event sector

Refering sustainability the following issues have been identified:

The local development can be effected positively if touristry is managed in a sustainable manner. However, touristry can besides hold negative impacts.

Tourism is a driving force behind the scattering of values that ameliorate a common apprehension and a peaceable coexistence in a globalised universe. Hotel ironss play an of import function as they frequently operate on an international footing.

As the hotel industry is marked by a high staff turnover it ‘s hard to enroll workers who identify with the company and show committedness. CSR could assist to get the better of these jobs by doing clear that the company truly attentions for their employees.


With their research the writers wanted to happen out what hotel companies have done to better the quality of life in host communities. Therefore they performed a content analysis of the corporate web sites and searched for any information refering CSR.

First they referred to a web site where all hotel groups were listed and removed all unimportant pages. The representatives of about 400 companies that were so left were asked to react a questionnaire. Due to a really low response rate, they reduced the sample to the 10 largest hotel groups. Furthermore, the questionnaire was sent to 5 big hotel groups in Europe. A sample of merely three was left because many of the 15 contacted companies did n’t take part. Therefore the questionnaire was sent to 10 hotel corporations from outside the top 10. Finally the sample consisted of 13 companies.

Findingss and context of literature reappraisal

The writers identified that the well being of the employees and the quality of unrecorded in the host states have been improved in recent old ages.

They found out that there are many different signifiers of committedness to CSR among hotel ironss like for illustration developing a codification of moralss or CSR policies and donating to charitable administrations. It can be seen as both a tendency and a end in touristry to hold well-established CSR programmes like the Swedish Hotel concatenation Scandic does. It should be considered critical that many companies that do CSR might make this non for the environment but merely for a good repute.

Article 3

aˆzCorporate societal duty and touristry: Hotel companies in Phuket, Thailand, after the Indian Ocean tsunami ”

Critical issues within Tourism and Events sector

Refering sustainability the following issues have been identified:

Western societies have a lifting involvement in CSR and opine that concerns in Third World states have to follow with CSR issues.

Some companies use CSR merely for marketing issues to consumer assurance.

The cordial reception and touristry industry trades with jobs sing staff turnover. CRS schemes can assist to bear down this advancement.

The Pacific Asia Travel Association wanted the people to maintain on going to the damaged countries to rush up the procedure of rehabilitation. CSR means besides economical sustainability.


In his research the pupil gives a short overview of CSR and the lifting involvement in CSR issues of the touristry industry. He takes the tsunami calamity as an illustration of direction issues in connexion with CSR. To acquire direct informations he sent a questionnaire to 14 hotel groups in Phuket after the tsunami to larn how the hotel directors handled the calamity. Merely 2 companies responded, both where international groups and they had documented CSR schemes. The information the pupil got were public spheres and imperativeness releases.

Findingss and context of literature reappraisal

Due to the international involvement after the tsunami, the attempts to make sustainable undertakings with long term ends became of import. There is a spread between affluent international companies and the local 1s, who still have large jobs to transport out CSR schemes. Smaller concerns had to react rapidly to the crisis and were non able to run into CSR demands. This led to public attending for planetary participants who could increase their “ green ” image at the disbursal of local companies who had to postulate with the effects of the tsunami. The pupil points out that selflessness is the footing for a successful cooperation in the sense of CSR and commercial and non-commercial precedences have to be balanced.

III. Report Part B – Case survey analysis of a company runing within tourism/events

1. Introduction

The Marriott International, Inc. hotel concatenation, as known today, was developed in 1957 from a 365-room motor hotel in Arlington, Virginia, under the direction of John Willard Marriott, Jr. In these yearss his parents John Willard Marriot and Alice Sheets Marriott operated a well running and continuously expanded eating house concatenation.

Within a few old ages a successful franchise company which supplied even aircraft and sail lines has been developed out of the initial root beer base of 1927.

Important mileposts in the history of the Marriott hotel concatenation are the gap of the first international Marriott Hotel in Acapulco, Mexico, in 1969, the first Count Yard Hotel in 1983

– a housing for concern travelers – , the gap of the Fairfield Inn and Marriott Suites Hotel in 1987, whereby Marriott became the first hotel company with a portfolio of trade names, and the twelvemonth 1995, when Marriott acquired 49 % involvement in the Ritz-Carlton Hotel company.

J. W. Marriott, Jr. was the CEO of Marriott since 1972 and when J. W. Marriott Senior died in 1985 he became Chairman of the Board. Thus, the enlargement of the hotel concatenation to an imperium of 1000000s is the virtue of J. Willard Marriott, Jr.

In March 2012, the long-run leader of Marriott Arne Sorenson became the new president and CEO of the company. However, Marriott, Jr. is still Executive Chairman and Chairman of the Board.

Meanwhile, Marriott International, Inc. has 3,700 housing belongingss in 74 states with grosss of over $ 12 billion and is deemed to be one of the taking housing companies in the universe. At the terminal of 2011 the franchise company had about 300 000 employees in 17 different trade names. The Marriott hotel concatenation includes, amongst others, the Ritz-Carlton,

JW Marriott, AC Hotels, Renaissance Hotels and Marriott Vacation Club. ( Compare )

2. CSR Programs and activities

For decennaries, Marriott International is committed to sustainability and is considered as one of the most ethical companies in the universe ( Compare 2012 ) . It developed and supports many plans and enterprises in order to aline their planetary concern “ with the issues that are of import to the communities where i?›theyi?? operate hotels ” ( 2012 ) . All activities and concerns – whether internal or external – follow the below-mentioned nucleus values aˆ‹aˆ‹of Marriott:

Put option Peoples FIRST

“ Take attention of associates and they will take attention of the clients. ”


“ Dedication to the client through service excellence. ”


“ Success is ne’er concluding ” .


“ How we do concern is every bit of import as the concern we do. ”


“ Our “ Spirit to function ” makes our civilization more vivacious and our concern stronger. ”

( 2012 )

Marriott International has divided its work on sustainability in three countries: Business Valuess, Society and Environment ( see appendix no 1 ) ( Compare Marriott Sustainability Report 2012 ) . Since non all enterprises and plans of Marriott can be presented, merely some illustrations of the three countries will be illustrated in the followers.

2.1 Business Valuess

Harmonizing to their nucleus value “ Put people foremost ” , Marriott sets high value on the wellness of their employees, personal, professional development and regard for all parties involved. In 2011 Marriott was the best housing company by making figure 7 in the list of the 25 “ World ‘s Best Multinational Workplaces ” by the Great Topographic point to Work A® Institute ( Compare 2011 ) . This institute conducts a study sing workplace excellence among the employees of the applied companies every twelvemonth. The standard replies make up the majority of the reappraisal.

To better the wellness and wellbeing of their employees, Marriott introduced the “ TakeCare Wellness Program ” two old ages ago. Beside audience opportunities the plan includes, for illustration on-site fittingness Centres, Weigh Watchers at Work, flu shootings, wellness showings and blood thrusts. Last twelvemonth they even carried out a mass meeting on this subject where the employees had to put to death a checklist of healthy activities within 30 yearss.

For Marriott, it ‘s besides of import to make occupations for people in the states where they operate and to animate immature people for callings in the cordial reception industry. In 2014, for illustration, a hotel in Port-au-Prince will be opened. Thereby employment and concern investing will be brought back to a topographic point that has been destroyed by an temblor in 2010. In add-on, within the following two old ages about 100 000 people will be hired worldwide. Two-thirdss of these occupations wo n’t be in U.S. hotels ( Compare Marriott Sustainability Report 2012 ) .

2.2 Society

Marriott International pursues the doctrine “ Spirit to function ” . “ Serve ” in this connexion means Shelter and nutrient, Environment, Readiness for hotel callings, Vitality of kids and Embracing diverseness and people with disablements. Harmonizing to this doctrine Marriott has partnerships with many alleviation organisations and donates several 1000000s each twelvemonth. Furthermore, the associates are involved in voluntary work for the local communities and charities.

In 2011, for illustration, 25 employees of the Marriott hotels in London took portion in the “ Three Peaks Challenge ” . The participants had to mount the three highest mountains in England, Scotland and Wales within 24 hours. With the aid of patrons and fund-raising sites the employees were able to back up the victims of the tsunami and the temblor in Japan with ?A 5,000. The Marriott hotel concatenation itself donated extra $ A 115,000.

In order to make something against the juvenile unemployment, Marriott created the “ World of Opportunity ” . Together with SOS Children ‘s Village and “ The Prince ‘s Trust Fairbridge ” immature people in Europe with disadvantaged backgrounds are supported by learning them life accomplishments and demoing them calling chances ( Compare Marriott Sustainability Report 2012 ) .

2.3 Environment

Another undertaking of the Marriott International is “ Nobility of Nature ” . In coaction with the non-profit organisation Conservation International they help China ‘s Sichuan state to conserve fresh H2O and support occupations incorporating environmental concerns like apiculture and the production of honey. This honey is now available in about all Marriott hotels in China. The returns are reinvested into the undertaking. Marriott besides donated $ 500,000 to back up the preservation of fresh H2O.

They besides set value on sustainability when it comes to nutrient. Therefore they purchase organic and local nutrient, make their ain herb and vegetable garden, recycle their cooking oil and 65A % of the purchased seafood is caught in sustainable mode. An enterprise for this is “ FutureFish ” , which provides all take parting hotels with a seafood sustainability usher, which shows options for endangered fish species and how sustainable seafood is obtained, prepared and served.

3. Linkss between theory and practice

The first article states out that many hotel proprietors and operators do n’t understand how to implement successful environmental direction patterns and that they are still incognizant of their economy chances.

Furthermore, the article trades with hotels devouring a important sum of natural resources and hence holding an impact on the environment in which they operate.

Marriott tries to diminish their environmental impact by cut downing energy ingestion, “ greening ” their supply ironss and by educating their spouses to ease operations on an environmentally friendly footing.

Furthermore, Marriott offers preparations sing environmental direction patterns. Those preparations already get down in entry-level places. As many of Marriott ‘s directors began their calling at that place, they are able understand the economy chances better.

The 2nd article states out that CSR can assist to get the better of jobs caused by a high staff turnover. Marriott is devoted to engage and besides retain a diverse and talented work force in every individual hotel. They offer many preparations and services back uping the wellbeing of their employees and promote professional and even personal growing. Marriott ‘s employees province that they like working for the company because of the feeling of integrity. They can place with Marriott because they know that they truly care for them.

Furthermore, in the 2nd article, it is stated out aˆztourism is a driving force behind the scattering of values that ameliorate a common apprehension and a peaceable coexistence in a globalised universe. ” For Marriott, diverseness is a really of import point of their CSR programmes. The company tries to advance the enlisting of minorities by presenting a concern unit or section for a good publicity of diverseness. Diversity helps to make a better apprehension between civilizations.

Additionally, the article trades with companies that use CSR programmes merely for image grounds. Accomplishments for the society and the environment around them are non as of import for them as a good repute. In praxis Marriott is making a batch of sustainability work for the environment and the society without the purpose to merely win invitees.

The 3rd article criticises that, for smaller companies, it ‘s non ever easy to run into the CSR demands and sometimes selflessness can be the footing for a successful CSR. In practice, Marriott besides wants to “ place and supply chance for diverse, minority-owned concerns, including little and average endeavors. ” ( Compare Marriott Sustainability Report 2012 ) .

4. Recommendations and betterments

A survey conducted in 2006 provinces that aˆzgreater serviceability was found to hold a positive influence on user satisfaction, and this besides generated greater website trueness. Finally, it was found that user trust was partly dependent on the grade of consumer website satisfaction. ” ( Flavian, Guinaliu, Guerrea, 2006 )

Therefore, the pupils would urge a complete makeover of the Marriott web site by a professional Web-Development Company. The bill of fare system and the overall interface of the web site is n’t really efficient in infinite and design. Furthermore, it does n’t supply the user with great serviceability. Searching for information sing their CSR plans is really time-consuming and frustrating. This should be changed in a manner that makes it really easy for users to acquire information about Marriott in general and particularly about their CSR plans.

IV. Report Part C – Establishing Performance

5. Confirmation of CSR

In recent old ages it became more and more of import for international companies to present themselves and their clients to CSR plans. The clients are interested in purchasing a sustainable merchandise, which they can devour without moral uncertainties ; the employees want to hold a save and fulfilling workplace and the employers are interested in doing net income and being successful.

Marriott International, Inc. is the lone housing industry that has entered in the list of the “ World ‘s Best Multinational Workplaces ” ( compare 2011 ) . This contains both an attractive workplace and a good repute for the company itself. As an international cooperating lodging industry Marriott is “ faced with a diverseness of environmental and cultural conditions in the different states in which they operate ” ( Nord 2006, p.6 ) . The success, the uninterrupted growing and the enlargement of the Marriott Company verifies that their CSR plan is absolutely in line with the economical, societal and environmental fortunes of the different states and civilizations.

Marriott demonstrates a acute sense of managing the tendency of sustainability. As one of the most ethical companies in the universe they fulfil the demands of the modern invitee, employee and stakeholder. The manner they realize CSR plans for their company demonstrates that they are committed to it. Thereby the Marriott Company is dependable and reliable for every individual stockholder.

V. Mentions


Ethisphere ( 2012 ) . 2012 World ‘s Most Ethical Companies. ( WWW papers ) .

hypertext transfer protocol: // ( accessed 19th November 2012 )

Flavian, C. , Guinaliu, M. , A Gurrea, R. , 2006.A Information & A ; Management.A Volume 43. Saragossa: A Elsevier B.V.

Great Topographic point To Work ( 2011 ) . World ‘s Best Multinational Workplaces. ( WWW papers ) .

hypertext transfer protocol: // ( accessed 9th November 2012 )

Marriott ( 2012 ) . Corporate Duty. ( WWW papers ) .

hypertext transfer protocol: // ( accessed 2nd November 2012 )

Marriott ( 2012 ) . Core Values & A ; Heritage. ( WWW papers ) .

hypertext transfer protocol: // ( accessed 2nd November 2012 )

Marriott ( 2012 ) . SUSTAINABILITY REPORT 2011- 2012. ( PDF papers ) .

hypertext transfer protocol: // ( accessed 31 October 2012 )

Marriott ( 2012 ) Our History of Innovation ( WWW papers )

hypertext transfer protocol: // ( accessed 31 October 2012 )


Bohdanowicz P, Zientara P 2008, Hotel companies ‘ part to bettering the quality of life of local communities and the wellbeing of their employees, Tourism and Hospitality Research, Vol. 9, 2, 147- 158

Drake, C. 2012, Sustainable Operationss, Lecturer, Angell Business School Freiburg ( September 20th 2012 )

Ghandi, M.K. ( 1913 ) . General Knowledge About Health. Vol. 13, Ch. 153, p. 241

Nord, Teresa 2006: Corporate Social Responsibility in the Hotel Industry – A Cross Culture Perspective. Centre for Transdisciplinary Environmental Research Sustainable Enterprising. Stockholm University

Scanlon, N.L. , 2007, An analysis and appraisal of environmental operating patterns in hotel and resort belongingss N.L. Scanlon / Hospitality Management 26 ( 2007 ) 711-723

VI. Appendixs

App. No.1

Marriott ( 2012 ) . SUSTAINABILITY REPORT 2011- 2012. ( PDF-document )

hypertext transfer protocol: // ( accessed 31 October 2012 )