Situated in the Centre of the Mediterranean Sea, merely some 93 kilometers off from the southmost portion of Sicily and 288 kilometers E of Tunis, the Republic of Malta is one of the smallest, albeit most dumbly populated ( 1307 inhabitants/kmA? ) , European states. The population of 412 970[ 1 ]is spread over Malta and Gozo[ 2 ], two chief islands, which together with their corresponding archipelago consist a surface country of 316 km2.
The narrative of the Maltese history is a really disruptive one and it has seen a sequence of many different powers governing its islands throughout the class of clip. Maltese islands have been already colonised in prehistoric times when the first colonists came down from the nearby Sicily, set uping their Neolithic communities around 5000 BC ( Trump 1972 ) . The period around 4100 BC marked the beginning of the alleged Temple Period ( A»ebbuA? stage ) around the islands, characterized by the visual aspect of the rock-cut chamber grave. The extremum of the Temple period ensued in the A gantija stage ( 3600 – 3200 BC ) , named after the eponymic site on the island of Gozo ( Trump 2002 ) . This was the first stage of the extended edifice activity in the signifier of the megalithic constructions, while the 2nd stage took topographic point around 3000 BC However, the fecund epoch of architectural art ceased towards 2500 BC, the edifices were abandoned and islands depopulated, until the coming of the Bronze Age with new populations geting and raising their colonies ( 2500 – 700 BC ) .
In the period between 700 and 500 BC, Malta was colonised by the Phoenicians who saw the importance of islands ‘ strategic location and used their seaports for their trading concern. After about 300 old ages of Punic domination, which started around 500 BC, and their resulting licking in the Punic wars, the power over the islands fell into the Roman hands in 218 BC, who incorporated them in the state of Sicily and therefore the Empire. After the division of the Roman Empire, Malta was briefly occupied by Vandals and Ostrogoths in the fifth century, but in 535 AD, during the reign of Emperor Justinian I, it was assimilated by the Byzantine Empire where it remained until the Arabian conquering in 870 AD ( Bonnano 2005 ) . A helter-skelter medieval period followed where different swayers and governing dynasties were replacing each other, for illustration, Normans, Swabians, Angevins, Aragonese, merely to call a few. For a brief period of 50 old ages, Malta was a portion of the Spanish Empire, until 1530 when it was consigned to the Knights of the Order of Saint John who were expelled from the island of Rhodes by Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent. Under the changeless menace of the Turkish onslaught, Grand Master Jean Parisot de la Valette built the first munitions on Malta ( Birgu and Isla ) and Fort St. Elmo to guard the entryway to the Grand Harbour. The inevitable Turkish invasion began in 1565 taging the event known in history as the Great Siege of Malta. The onslaught was successfully warded off and in 1566 the Knights started building their new metropolis, which was to transport the name of their winning Grand Master. For the following 232 old ages, Malta stayed under the bid of the Knights until the Gallic business in 1798 led by Napoleon. However, after merely two old ages, the Gallic will give up the district to the British and Malta will go a crown settlement by the commissariats of the Treaty of Paris ( 1814 ) .[ 3 ]
As an of import strategic naval base to the Allied forces, Malta suffered great harm and loss of lives during WWII, while being bombed by the German and Italian forces. On 15th April 1942, King George VI awarded the state with George Cross for courage, a symbol that is today embedded in the Maltese flag.[ 4 ]
During the British regulation, the authorities construction was invariably switching. Malta was granted self-determination in 1921 by the commissariats of the Amery-Milner Constitution, which besides allowed for the first Parliament to be established. The Constitution was suspended, restored and withdrawn in the period of three old ages ( 1930 – 1933 ) as the consequence of a political crisis ( Zammit 2005 ) . However, self-determination was restored to Malta between 1947 and 1964. Finally, on 21st September 1964, Malta gained independency from the colonial regulation, gained sovereignty within the Commonwealth and joined the United Nations. In the undermentioned twelvemonth, Malta besides joined the Council of Europe. It was non until a decennary subsequently that Malta declared itself a democracy, on 13th December 1974, with Sir Anthony Mamo as its first president. With the expiration of the military base understanding, British military personnels and the Royal Navy withdrew from the islands in 1979.[ 5 ]In 1993, local authorities was reintroduced by an act of Parliament. Another milepost in Maltese history occurred in 2003 when the Treaty of Accession to the European Union was signed and on 1st May 2004, in the biggest expansion of the EU history, Malta joined the Union with other nine provinces.
Today, Malta is a parliamentary democracy whose authorities construction and public disposal are modelled on the Westminster system. Its political scene is governed by two major political parties, which shifted in power since WWII, viz. , the Nationalist Party ( Partit Nazzjonalista ; Christian Democratic Party ) and the Labour Party ( Partit Laburista ; Social Democratic Party ) , with Nationalist party being presently in power.
2.2 Legislation on cultural heritage
The earliest statute law on cultural heritage in Malta dates back to 1925 when the colonial authorities issued the Antiquities ( Protection ) Act which was the amalgamate edition of a series of earlier regulations issued from 1907. The Act was followed by the creative activity of the Antiquities list in 1932, which contained the records of sites and belongingss under protection.
Heritage was following mentioned in 1991, in the context of Act Nr. V of the Environment Protection Act which proclaimed that “ curates responsible for the environment have the power to declare any natural or cultural site as protected ” . In the succeeding Development Planning Act of 1992, cultural heritage is introduced through the programming of belongingss for preservation.
The old Antiquities Act was superseded in 2002 by the Cultural Heritage Act which was to rectify the instabilities that had existed since the times of antediluvian administration and institute structural alterations which would reflect the current demands by doing commissariats for direction, ordinance and preservation of cultural heritage ( Grima & A ; Theuma 2006 ) .
The Cultural Heritage Act ( 2002 ) , the chief tool that protects the cultural heritage in Malta, defines ‘cultural heritage ‘ as “ movable and immoveable objects of artistic, architectural, historical, archeological, ethnographic, palaeontological and geological importance and includes information or informations relative to cultural heritage refering to Malta or to any other state. ”
The CHA established a figure of different entities, such as Heritage Malta, Superintendence of Cultural Heritage, Committee of Guarantee, Malta Centre for Restoration ( merged with Heritage Malta in 2005 ) , National Forum and Cultural Heritage Fund ( administered by the Committee of Guarantee ) . The maps and aims of selected entities will be detailed subsequently in this chapter ( 2.3 ) .
Guardianship Deed is an of import tool introduced by the CHA ( Article 48 ) , with the SCH in charge of the disposal procedure. It encourages engagement at grassroots degree by leting cultural heritage NGOs and local councils to come in into contract with the State which can reassign to them immoveable cultural belongings in care. This can merely be done with belongingss such as archeological sites, fortresses, towers and edifices which are public belongings. If the understanding in the notarial act is for some ground cancelled, the land returns to the authorities and the public ownership of the site is non lost.
Government gives LCs or NGOs particular rights on these belongingss, particularly economic rights, because they can do money from the sites through fundraising and maintain the money for Restoration of edifices. This is an exclusion because normally, an NGO can non execute fund-raising activities on a public belongings. A GD is highly helpful because it allows the province to reassign the ignored belongingss which would otherwise likely ne’er be restored.
Up until now, 10 belongingss were entrusted to NGOs ( nine to Din l-Art Helwa and one to Wirt Artna ) and one to the Tarxien Local Council for a WWII shelter ( SCH 2010 ) . The figure seems to bespeak either a deficiency of involvement or hapless consciousness of the chances offered by the GD ( SCH 2010 ) .
The National scheme for cultural heritage was published in 2006 by the Ministry for Tourism and Culture as a farther measure in the execution of the Cultural Heritage Act. The chief aims identified in this papers are citizen engagement, improved administration, development of cultural resources and sustainable usage of heritage resources ( MTC 2006a ) .
The Local Councils Act was approved by the Maltese Parliament on 30 June 1993. It was based on the COE ‘s European Charter of Local Self-Government which the Government ratified earlier that same twelvemonth. The Act created a system of local authorities governments and gave them considerable duties and maps, all of which are described in Articles 33 through 48. In relation to cultural heritage, the LCA limited LCs ‘ engagement in cultural heritage undertakings, nevertheless, Article 48 of the CHA enabled them to presume the function of keepers by come ining into the Guardianship title with the authorities. This procedure has already been discussed earlier in this text.
The Development Planning Act was created in 1992 and makes commissariats “ for the planning and direction of development and for the constitution of an authorization with powers to that consequence ” ( DPA 1992, 1 ) . The articles 46 through 47 are of involvement here as they refer to cultural and natural heritage and authorise the bureau in inquiry ( MEPA ) to schedule belongings for preservation, to pull off and reexamine the list of scheduled belongings and to do exigency preservation orders.
The Structure Plan for the Maltese Islands was published in 1990 by the Planning Services Division of the Ministry for Development of Infrastructure. It is different from the DPA, in that it designates assorted types of preservation countries and belongingss, Chapter 15 of the SPMI identifies complementary policies which apply to those countries and belongingss. It farther ranks the belongingss harmonizing to their significance and grade of protection. Listed edifices in Urban Conservation Areas are graded as Grades 1 to 3 ; Areas and Sites of Archaeological Importance are classified from Class A to D, while Areas of Ecological Importance and Sites of Scientific Importance are rated from Level 1 to 4 ( SPMI 1990 ) .
2.3 Relevant governments
In the last 12 old ages, civilization has shifted between several ministerial portfolios, soon representing a portion of Ministry for Education, Culture, Youth and Sports ( Attard 2010 ) . Before the CHA of 2002, there was merely the Museums Department, the province administrative unit, which was both the operator and the regulator, maps which are today performed by Heritage Malta and the Superintendence of Cultural Heritage. Since the Museums Department was non covered by jurisprudence, there was non much information to be found on the topic. They had no liberty, but they had a budget with which they ran the museums, while the gross from the ticket gross revenues went back to the authorities ( Cutajar 2010 ) .
The Superintendence for Cultural Heritage ( Sovrintendenza Tal-Patrimonju Kulturali ) is a national bureau responsible for the ordinance of all affairs refering to the cultural heritage of Malta. Their mission, as defined by Article 7, paragraph 1 of the CHA is “ to carry through the responsibilities of the State in guaranting the protection and handiness of Malta ‘s cultural heritage ” . Article 7, paragraph 5 inside informations all the maps of the SCH, some of which are: development, managing and updating the National stock list of cultural belongings ; advancing research in the field of cultural heritage ; empowering and carry oning diggings ; maintaining and pull offing certification and archives in relation to cultural heritage ; the monitoring of import and export of cultural goods ; enforcement of the Torahs ; reding the Minister and MEPA on heritage affairs ; disposal of Guardianship workss with NGOs and local councils. SCH is headed by the Superintendent of Cultural Heritage and presently consists of 11 staff members ( Attard 2010 ) . Since 2007, they have administered the Cultural Heritage Inventory Management System ( CHIMS ) undertaking, a national database for heritage informations direction, which attempts to better entree to information.
The bureau keeps a punctilious record of their publications viz. , Annual Reports and State of heritage studies which can be accessed online on their official web site.
Heritage Malta is an operating bureau, established “ to guarantee that those elements of the cultural heritage entrusted to it are protected and made accessible to the populace ” ( CHA 2002, Art.8, para.1 ) . HM ‘s chief undertaking is direction of State-owned museums and heritage sites, their related aggregations on the islands of Malta and Gozo, and UNESCO World Heritage Sites ( HM 2008 ) . The bureau is governed by a Board of Directors. In 2005, the amendment to the CHA merged the former Malta Centre for Restoration with HM, and therefore gave rise to the Institute of Conservation and Management of Cultural Heritage which offers academic and vocational classs in preservation in coaction with MCAST and the University of Malta.[ 6 ]
Further maps of the Agency are elaborated upon in Article 8, paragraph 4 of the CHA, some of which are acquisition of belongingss, aggregations, sites and edifices ; executing or commissioning preservation or Restoration of owned or administered cultural belongingss ; advancing instruction and grasp of heritage to the general populace ; guaranting that all of the heritage sites entrusted to them are managed, conserved, studied and presented in the best manner possible.
HM has successfully managed to capitalise upon different EU support strategies for their cultural heritage and preservation programmes. Following is a choice of some of the on-going undertakings: SMARTmuseum ( FP7 ) – development of a platform for advanced IT services ; Rehabilitation of Roman Baths and Christian Catacombs in Mgarr and Mosta ( EAFRD ) ; MINERVA Digitisation Project ; A¦aA?ar Qim and Mnajdra Archaeological Park ( ERDF ) – installing of protective shelters, preservation and presentation, Med.Archeo.Sites: Study and Valorisation of Archaeological Sites of the Mediterranean Area.[ 7 ]The latest and a instead important undertaking is a 9.2a‚¬ million Archaeological Heritage Conservation Project ( ERDF ) launched in mid-2008. It will run until March 2013 and includes plants on three sites, two of which are portion of the Maltese Megalithic temples WHS ( A gantija and Tarxien temples ) , while the 3rd is on UNESCO ‘s Probationary List ( St. Paul ‘s Catacombs in Rabat ) . The undertaking includes building of elevated paseos for both WHSs, a museum and a visitants ‘ Centre at A gantija, and a impermanent protective shelter, similar to the 1s at A¦aA?ar Qim and Mnajdra, over the Tarxien temples ( HM 2008 ) .
Malta Environment and Planning Authority ( MEPA ) was established by the commissariats of the Development Planning Act ( 1992 ) and its function farther reinforced by the Environment Protection Act ( 2001 ) . It is a national bureau in charge of “ land usage planning and environmental ordinance in Malta ” .[ 8 ]MEPA is subdivided into the Development Planning Directorate, Environment Protection Directorate, Directorate for Corporate Service and the Chairman ‘s Office, all of which are transporting out the bureau ‘s duties.
The Planning Directorate is farther split into the Forward Planning Division and the Development Services Division. It is within FPD that the Heritage Planning Unit ( HPU ) , which is responsible for all affairs refering to cultural and natural heritage, is placed. A full list of HPU ‘s duties and responsibilities can be found explained in item in Structure Plan for the Maltese Islands ( Chapter 15 ) , EPA and DPA ( Chapters 46 – 48 ) . Some of the chief undertakings of HPU are supplying general information on heritage, legal protection of immoveable heritage and heritage related planning, scheduling belongingss and keeping the Malta Scheduled Property Register, publication guidelines for Restoration,[ 9 ]internal[ 10 ]and public consciousness undertakings.[ 11 ]
Within the “ Public Awareness ” subdivision of the HPU ‘s website one can happen links to X-Plain and One World. X-Plain is a four-page long newssheet on MEPA ‘s monthly activities, whose first issue was published in May 2007. There were seven issues published in 2007 and merely three in 2008 which clearly shows that the newssheet has been discontinued. One universe, on the other manus, was a particular column in Times of Malta newspaper where, in the period from May 2007 until June 2009, a series of articles on cultural heritage of Malta were published.
There is besides an enlightening subdivision with replies to some often asked inquiries such as the definition of buffer zones, how to look into if one ‘s belongings has been scheduled or which works can be carried out within scheduled belongings without development consent.
MEPA and HPU are promoting citizen engagement so, for case, every citizen can bespeak a belongings to be scheduled and therefore lawfully protected and enlisted in MSPR by make fulling the appropriate signifier available on the MEPA web site.
The Maltese National Commission for UNESCO was created when Malta gained independency in 1964. Although a national committee, it comprises of voluntary staff members whose energy, resources and clip they can pass are minute compared to national committees of other states that employ full-time forces. The Maltese National Commission for UNESCO organises local undertakings which are in line with the mission and aims of the parent administration located in Paris.[ 12 ]Some of the undertakings related to Malta ‘s WHSs include a readying of a reactive monitoring study for City of Valletta and publication of “ The Tarxien Temples: Teacher ‘s Resource Book & A ; Worksheets ” . The Commission runs the official web site where one can garner information about their activities and members. The News subdivision of the site brings updates on intelligence related to planetary UNESCO ‘s activities.
Local councils, as already mentioned in the subdivision on statute law, were created in 1993 as required by the LCA. There are wholly 68 local councils of which 54 are located in Malta and 14 in Gozo. LCs are, by legal definition, responsible for a figure of things ( Articles 33 – 48, LCA ) , and specifically excluded from a figure of other things, most of which are covering with cultural sites. They have the right to organize local festas or other folkloristic activities, and deduct support for civilization from their ain resources. LCs spend a batch of money on Restoration of local chapels and publications, but national memorials, such as the Megalithic temples WHS, are non their duty as those are funded from the authorities budgets and managed by the national bureau ( Heritage Malta ) . Tarxien, Qrendi, MA?arr and XagA§ra are local councils of particular involvement here since the Megalithic temples WHS are situated in their administrative units. Following is a short analysis of information that these LCs provide on the temples to interested parties.
The office of XagA§ra Local Council does non incorporate any HM booklets on A gantija. A member of the LC informed the writer that they do non have these booklets from Heritage Malta at all. However, they do hold a catalogue which lists all the sites of historical involvement in XagA§ra, though it was n’t specified if this is something available for purchase or merely for library usage. The book was non available for sing at the clip of the writer ‘s visit.
The official web site of the LC was no more enlightening either. It contains a nexus[ 13 ]which shows an synergistic map of XagA§ra with clickable points of involvement. Upon snaping the point for A gantija, the visitant enters a new page with information on A gantija temples and one exposure of the site. The text does non advert that A gantija is UNESCO WHS. Another nexus[ 14 ]provides some brief information on the history of Gozo, get downing from prehistoric times, and includes one more exposure of A gantija.
The web site of MA?arr Local Council provides specific information on the Ta ‘ A¦aA?rat and Skorba temples accompanied by one exposure of each site.[ 15 ]About everything is in Maltese, with merely some content translated into English. The English version of the site displays information on the history of the small town having links to the HM web site and their information on the temples.[ 16 ]The writer did non hold a opportunity to run into a representative of this LC despite several communicating efforts.
The office of the Qrendi Local Council, merely like the XagA§ra LC, does non incorporate any HM booklets. The secretary of the LC stated unfortunately that there is no cooperation between them and Heritage Malta although they have expressed their involvement on many occasions. On the other manus, the LC seems to collaborate and confer with more freely with MEPA refering cultural heritage issues. From clip to clip the council organises cultural and educational excursions, nevertheless, none of these were done at A¦aA?ar Qim or Mnajdra WHSs. They have besides designed several “ heritage walks ” , itineraries through the small town of Qrendi and its important edifices, chiefly local chapels and churches, a castle, a tower and a public garden.[ 17 ]
In 2009, the council organized a cultural event “ From prehistoric culture to the digital epoch ” during which one talk on the temples of A¦aA?ar Qim and Mnajdra was held.
The official web site of the LC is available in both Maltese and English. One of the links entitled ArkeoloA?ija contains three farther subdivisions on the archeological sites around the small town, two of which are A¦aA?ar Qim and Mnajdra. The article on the temples is short but it does advert their WH appellation.[ 18 ]Another nexus allows entree to a figure of imperativeness releases related to the landfill site contention issued by the Council.[ 19 ]
At the clip of the writer ‘s visit, the Tarxien Local Council offices were closed and further attempts to set up contact with an LC representative have failed. The official web site contains a twosome of links which refer to the temples, although their contents are questionable. The nexus which describes the history of the small town, including several ( wrong ) mentions to the temples, quotation marks to a great extent from an out-of-date book, published in 1932.[ 20 ]Another nexus, although entitled “ Postijiet Interessanti ” ( eng. interesting topographic points ) , did non happen the temples interesting adequate to be included in the overview. Finally, the last nexus brings a short article on the Tarxien temples WHS with three images.[ 21 ]The web site is available in Maltese with Italian interlingual rendition.
2.4 Cultural Heritage NGOs
The two major cultural heritage NGOs in Malta are Din L-art Helwa and Fondazzjoni Wirt Artna which are both interested in assorted facets of cultural heritage. Several other NGOs, with changing grades of engagement, are besides included in this overview.
Din L-art Helwa ( National Trust of Malta ) is a voluntary administration established in 1965. Their mission is protection, preservation, direction and care of historic memorials and edifices, taking attention of the environment and environmental issues, raising consciousness and the publicity of heritage to the populace. Din l-Art Helwa maps as a Trust, connoting that it is reconstructing the sites “ on behalf of the State, the Church, and private proprietors ” ( Vigilo 2010 ) . Membership in the administration is unfastened to all.
Since 2003, Din l-Art Helwa holds nine belongingss in trust which were transferred to it by the Superintendence of Cultural Heritage via the first Guardianship title.[ 22 ]Sites are manned by voluntaries who keep them unfastened for visitants. The Organization ‘s website offers in-depth information about their sites, runs and undertakings. Furthermore, it is frequently updated with information about current events and offers e-mail subscription to their newssheet. There are besides many utile publications available for download, such as booklets with proposed walks through their sites and Vigilo, the administration ‘s bulletin.
Fondazzjoni Wirt Artna ( The Malta Heritage Trust ) is a voluntary administration established in 1987. Their focal point lies on Restoration, presentation and direction of chiefly neglected rural and industrial sites, every bit good as British and mediaeval military heritage.[ 23 ]
The foundation both owns belongingss and holds them in trust. Apart from one prehistoric temple in their ownership,[ 24 ]the remainder of the belongingss are largely late medieval and twentieth century military constructions such as bulwarks, bastions, garrisons, towers, Bridgess and defense mechanism stations. There are several sites presently open to public[ 25 ]which are looked after by the voluntaries and paid staff. Wirt Artna is running many different undertakings every bit diverse as preservation and Restoration plants on their belongingss, historical re-enactments as an reading tool ( “ Populating history ” ) , instruction and consciousness raising about military heritage among schoolchildren ( “ Hands-on Heritage ” ) . Membership in the administration is unfastened to all.
The official web site of the foundation does non offer a subscription to a newssheet, nevertheless, they do do good usage of new internet media and opened a group “ Fondazzjoni Wirt Artna ” on Facebook, a societal networking platform anyone with a Facebook history can fall in and automatically maintain path of the group ‘s updates. The foundation ‘s Facebook group besides contains exposure albums with images of assorted events they organised. The group presently has 813 members.
Wirt GA§awdex is a non-governmental administration created in 1981 whose activities and undertakings are chiefly concerned with the historical, archeological and natural heritage of the islands of Gozo and Comino. Wirt GA§awdex is involved in Restoration undertakings on memorials such as late medieval watchtower, chapels, bastions and a gunpowder magazine.[ 26 ]They are besides forming Tourss to sites of cultural significance on the islands and keeping public talks.
In relation to the Megalithic temples WHS, there has merely been one talk entitled “ Prehistoric Temples of Gozo ” , held in April 2010, since the administration started with the talk programme in 2006. Furthermore, in the period between 2006 and 2009, there were merely a sum of eight Tourss organized, and apart from the visit to Hypogeum and Tarxien Temples in April 2007, there were no other visits to WHS, surprisingly, non even to A gantija which is situated on the island itself.
The official web site does non offer a newssheet subscription, but some of the issues can be downloaded in.pdf format straight from the site. Membership in this administration is unfastened to all.
The Old Temples Study Foundation ( OTSF ) is a US non-profit administration established in 1994 whose mission is to further instruction and research related to prehistoric civilization in Malta. The foundation has recently merely been focused on organizing educational travel trips for Americans who wish to see Malta and keeping talks and exhibitions in the US on Maltese civilization and heritage.
In the yesteryear, the OTSF organised a figure of different activities and undertakings, what follows is a choice of those that were addressed to the Maltese population.
Student Prehistoric Heritage Awareness Project: in coaction with the Ministry of Education and former Museums Department, OTSF published a instructor ‘s enchiridion on Maltese prehistoric heritage which was distributed in Maltese schools. The twelvemonth the undertaking was undertaken has non been published on their web site and there is no possibility to see what the enchiridion looked like.
“ State me about the Maltese temples ” is another book which evolved from the old undertaking. It is an illustrated bilingual ( Maltese – English ) book for usage in schoolrooms which was published in twelvemonth 2000.
In 2003, the Foundation organized an international conference entitled “ Researching the Maltese Prehistoric Temple Culture ( EMPTC ) ” which gathered experts from around the universe.[ 27 ]
The OTSF hosts a FAQ subdivision on their functionary web site which provides information on the megalithic civilization of Malta for kids.
The writer attempted to set up a meeting with a representative of the Foundation while in Valletta and left her contact inside informations with the secretary, unluckily, there was no feedback afterwards.
Archaeological society Malta ( ASM ) is a voluntary administration founded in 1993. Their mission is to advance the survey of archeology and to raise consciousness of the archeological heritage of Malta among the populace. In order to accomplish that, the Society organises site visits in Malta ( members merely ) , gives talks and seminars, some of which are unfastened to general public, and publishes the Malta Archaeological Review. In the period between 2004 and 2010, the Society organised many visits to archeological sites for its members, nevertheless merely two of those visits were to the Megalithic temples WHS, more exactly, to Skorba and Tarxien. Apart from abovementioned activities, the Society does non administrate any extra undertakings. The calendar of scheduled events and talks can be found on their official web site.[ 28 ]The site does non offer a newssheet updating service. Membership in ASM is unfastened to all.
The XagA§ra Civic Group ( il-Moviment ASiviku XagA§ra ) is presently inactive and is non likely to get down up once more. The group was formed around 1985, but was put on a suspension in 1990. It was chiefly operated on the island of Gozo, its board members were located in the small town of XagA§ra. The board consisted of six members, while the group rank counted about one hundred people ( Gauci 2010 ) . XCG was largely concerned with the heritage around the small town and A gantija temples which were located in its locality. Two actions directed at the saving of A gantija were refering the shutting of the route for heavy vehicles which was go throughing following to the temples and the creative activity of paseos covered with wooden boards so that the visitants would non walk on the original flooring of the temples.
XCG besides published a tri-monthly bulletin on environment and history entitled “ L-egA§jun ” . The paper was sponsored by local eating houses and mercantile establishments, but finally had to shut down because of menaces and deficiency of support ( Attard Tabone 2010 ) . One of the grounds why the Group stopped operating was the counter attitude of XagA§ra Local Council who saw XCG as rivals and did non O.K. of their activities ( Attard Tabone 2010 ) .
2.5 Educational and community outreach programmes
The subchapters 2.2 and 2.3 give an overview of governmental and non-governmental bureaus which have been presented together with their corresponding undertakings and activities. The undermentioned subdivision will briefly present educational and community outreach programmes offered by those administrations. Particular attending will be given to the designation of such programmes related to Megalithic temples of Malta WHS or a deficiency thereof.
The Superintendence of Cultural Heritage is working on a development of the Downloadable Lesson Plans Project whose purpose is to fix the lesson plans covering assorted topics on cultural heritage and do them accessible to instructors of primary and secondary schools. The first, and presently the lone lesson programs that are available are covering the subject of Maltese windmills and were launched in 2004 during the European Heritage Days jubilation.[ 29 ]SCH participated in several COE ‘s European Heritage Days runs from 2003 – 2005[ 30 ]with attach toing talks and events. In 2007, they organized an exhibition for the local councils of Sannat and Xewkija which displayed the consequences of archeological diggings on the Punic/Roman sanctuary of Ghar ix-Xih ( SCH 2007a ) . In 2005, a show panel was designed for Santa Lucia Local council which explained the importance of the Santa Lucia hypogeum. One farther exhibition on archeological findings from Neolithic Gravess was organised in March 2010. The SCH recognizes the demand for public outreach and educational programmes and would clearly desire to make more in that regard, unluckily, they are mostly short-handed,[ 31 ]wholly funded by the State and do non hold their ain sites from which they could garner gross and fund or form such undertakings on a larger graduated table ( Cutajar 2010 ) .A
Heritage Malta has its ain educational section with different programmes for different mark groups. Another section within HM with a similar function is ICMCH which jointly with University of Malta runs academic classs in preservation, while with MCAST, it organises vocational preparation classs such as “ Masonry Heritage Skills ” or “ Wood preservation ” . There are besides assorted short classs aimed at the general populace. One illustration is a class on consciousness about cultural heritage intended for people who already have an involvement in the subject and those who are already involved in some manner with cultural heritage, but need to get extra background information ( Sammut 2010 ) . However, the class engagement is limited to 20 people.
Beside classical educational programmes, HM besides developed “ Heritage trails ” which up until now explored subjects such as Medieval Chapels, The Great Siege, The British in Malta, Early Christianity in Malta, etc. However, there were no trails in relation to the Megalithic temples WHS. HM has developed a series of learning resources and workbooks for both instructors and pupils which cover subjects on the Inquisitor ‘s Palace, The Palace Armoury and GA§ar Dalam cave. Refering the Megalithic temples WHS, activity sheets, mystifiers and games for kids have been created for the “ Patrimonito ” Activity room in the new Visitors ‘ Centre at A¦aA?ar Qim and Mnajdra WHS.
The official web site of HM references two more activities aiming the general populace, talks and “ Lord’s daies with Heritage Malta ” , but there is no extra account on the activities therefore far organized or the 1s in planning.
Heritage Malta is seeking to maintain up with the developments in the field of new media and communicating engineerings. One farther measure in that way was the creative activity of a profile on Facebook, a societal networking platform, which is used to administer updates on HM ‘s events, exhibitions and intelligence. Their FB page presently counts over 4 600 members.
MEPA did non develop any educational programmes related to heritage. The subdivision Heritage Education and Training on their web site lists merely degree and sheepskin classs offered jointly by University of Malta, Heritage Malta and MCAST. There is no reference of any consciousness raising activities per Se.[ 32 ]The Maltese National Commission for UNESCO have therefore far merely produced one publication entitled “ The Tarxien Temples: Teacher ‘s Resource Book & A ; Worksheets ” .
As already stated earlier in the text, local councils do non hold the legal right to interfere in certain affairs associating to cultural heritage. Since WHSs are state-owned national memorials, the general sentiment which prevails among the councils is that they want to remain off from the “ authorities concern ” . The LCs will non pass money on temples in their district for a large authorities section which has 1000000s in financess. They instead use the money on the Restoration of their local chapels and historical edifices, administration of festas and other things the Government would non desire to pass money on. For this ground, the LCs in inquiry[ 33 ]did non develop any educational or awareness raising undertakings on the heritage in their backyard, merely because they do non see it as their duty. However, all four LCs made at least some information on the Megalithic temples available to the communities through their web sites.
When it comes to NGOs, Din l-Art Helwa does non administrate any educational undertakings or workshops on the cultural and natural heritage of Malta, nor does the Archaeological society of Malta, which offers really sporadic talks and site visits related to the temples. The official web site of Wirt GA§awdex references “ particular educational programmes for schoolchildren ” , nevertheless, further inside informations on such programmes were non available. Other than the antecedently mentioned instructor ‘s enchiridion on Maltese prehistoric heritage and a similar illustrated bilingual book for schoolchildren, the Old Temples Study Foundation does non administrate any outreach or educational programmes.
It seems that the lone NGO that is more earnestly committed to the consciousness raising undertakings is Wirt Artna. Sadly adequate, none of the sites, which are the focal point of their activities, are the Megalithic temples WHS. The “ Hands-on Heritage Project ” is Wirt Artna ‘s educational and awareness raising undertaking directed at schoolchildren and offered at four locations: Malta at War Museum, Notre Dame Gate, Fort Rinella and the Saluting Battery.[ 34 ]Through applied instruction, the foundation is giving the kids a opportunity to use the cognition they acquired in category through hands-on experiences at their sites. The programme is a combination of site visit and on-site activities with a continuance of about two hours. Some of the activities include sing some facets of day-to-day life in the air-raid shelters of wartime Malta ; munition design and edifice ; metallurgy, historic heavy weapon and the scientific discipline and chemical science related to it ; military signalling and uniforms, etc. Teachers have besides the chance to download the attach toing “ instructor battalions ” for each site.
The overview of the educational and community outreach programmes offered by different organic structures and administrations in Malta clearly shows the deficiency of such programmes and activities in general. When it comes to the Megalithic temples World Heritage Site, there are merely a smattering of activities which are directed specifically at them. The largest portion of these activities is offered in the signifier of public talks, site visits and exhibitions at best, while some of these events are limited to members merely.
On the other manus, the more advanced outreach programmes have unluckily nil to make with the WHSs in inquiry. The bulk of active undertakings are turn toing merely kids and young persons, while the grownups are being excluded. There does non look to be a clear policy or vision on the type and scope of community outreach undertakings or the ways in which they could be executed.
Some of the administrations are progressively overhauling and utilizing tools such as societal networking platforms in order to link to their mark audiences and raise consciousness about cultural heritage. Furthermore, a figure of of import policy paperss, studies and information on heritage of Malta, are published on-line and available for download or screening, therefore besides easing the entree to information. Nevertheless, the exclusive usage of online tools for raising consciousness is besides excepting a big part of the population, for illustration those who have no cyberspace entree, no electronic equipment, or those who do non possess plenty know-how to enable them to utilize a computing machine or cyberspace.
The lacks which have been identified in the bing offerings of the community outreach and educational programmes will be farther addressed in the Recommendations subdivision.