Chapter two discusses the theoretical facet in quality of life. In add-on, the description of the Orang Asli community will besides be given to supplying a better apprehension of this community. This is because quality of life has become one of authorities chief docket in developing the states. This chapter will explicate relation with quality of life and Orang Asli community.
The grounds are quality of life ever related with the surveies at urban countries meanwhile surveies about quality of life at rural country is seldom done. That is the ground on taking a Orang Asli community as a topic of survey because Orang Asli community are normally located at the rural country and distant country. Other than that, Orang Asli community ever said to populate in a backward and dawdling behind comparison to other races in Malaysia. Therefore, the apprehension of quality of life and Orang Asli should be suppressed in chapter two.
2.2.1 Definition of Quality Of Life
Quality of life is a subjective affair that hard to be measured. So it is of import to cognize the existent significance of quality of life. The best ways of apprehension is by separate the word of ‘quality of life ‘ . Harmonizing to Oxford lexicons, ‘quality ‘ is criterion of something as measured against other things of a similar sort which is the grade of excellence of something meanwhile ‘life ‘ bring base for the period between the birth and decease of a living thing, particularly a human being. So quality of life existent significance is degree of excellence of human being.
Harmonizing Lim Lan Yuan, Belinda Yuen and Christine Low ( 1999 ) in a book entitle ‘Quality Of Life in the Cities ‘ , quality of life is a many-sided construct. Meaning of multifaceted is something that is broad. In this instance it is because quality of life covers non merely a material facet such as degree of life but besides facet of life such as a good wellness and degree of instruction. In other words, Lim Lan Yuan, Belinda Yuen and Christine Low ( 1999 ) seek to state us that the quality of life can non stand by itself. Types of consequence that may come from the research is depends on what respondents have experienced in their life. These three authors agreed that quality of life for respondent is harmonizing to location they live and work. This is the ground why quality of life for every individual is different from one and another.
Ramkrishna Mukherjee ( 1989 ) says that quality of life is concern about the living status of the people. Ramkrishna ( 1989 ) use several attack to mensurate quality of life such as the criterion and manner of life. The criterion of life for illustration is constructed from quantitative fluctuation in the object of enquiry which is given by list of information points such as ingestion of nutrient, apparels, usage of assorted sorts of lasting goods like furniture and adjustment, ownership of point like wireless, telecasting and other lodging comfortss.
Mark Rapley ( 2003 ) believes that the quality of life has been building from being a societal scientific index of the comparative well being of the whole population to being a mensurable facet of single subjective experience.
American sociologist James Q. Wilson ( www.wordiq.com ) reference the ‘Broken Window Theory ‘ , which asserts that comparatively minor jobs left unattended send a subliminal message that upset in general is being tolerated, and as a consequence, more serious offenses every bit good stop up being committed ( the analogy being that a broken window left unrepaired show an image of generalised prostration ) . This theory attempts to demo that the status of the environment gives the direct massage to people that that infinite or topographic point is insecure. These insecure senses show that people are unrecorded in danger in that topographic point and it straight show that their quality of life is in low degree. One index that has been used to mensurate quality of life is degree of felicity and when their fell that their life is in danger, they can non make the quality of life. This American sociologist attempts to state that physical environment can lend to degree of quality of life.
Mark Rapley ( 2003 ) refers to Noll ( 2000 ) says the great society is concerned non with how much but with how good. It means that it is non with the measure of goods but with the quality of their lives. Rapley ( 2003 ) besides added that quality of life research is same as the public assistance measuring. He defines that public assistance is the subjective well being and the most of import is the step of the satisfaction and felicity.
2.2.2 Definition of Orang Asli
Who is the Orang Asli? That is inquiry that we must replies before we get to cognize this alone group. Orang Asli is a generic name given to the autochthonal people populating on Malay Peninsular. Other cultural in Sabah and Sarawak is non taking into history of this Orang Asli group because these two provinces use the term “Sabah indigenous” and “Sarawak indigenous” . Eighteen cultural group subgroups is autumn in this class, which can be classified into three groups. These three groups are the Negrito, the Senoi and the Malayu Asli. This group is determined based on their linguistic communication, support and administrative intent.
The term Orang Asli is a Malay interlingual rendition of the English word “aborigine” with ‘orang’meaning “human” and ‘asli ‘ significance “original” or “traditional” . Orang Aslirefers to the autochthonal peoples ofPeninsular Malaysia that non MalayMuslims, Malaysia ‘s chief cultural group. There were about 2.93 million Pongo pygmaeus asli in Malaysia in twelvemonth 2006 ( Malaysia Bulletin of Statistics issued on June 2006 ) . They are the minority group because they make up merely 11.8 % of the national population. Nabuto Toshiro ( 2009 ) refers to Mohd. Tap ( 1990 ) , pointed that the Malaysia authorities began utilizing the Orang Asli term in 1996. Before that, the Orang Asli was diversely described as the Biduanda, Jakun, Sakai, natives and other term.
A. Baer ( 1999 ) in book entitle “Health, disease and endurance: a biomedical and familial analysis of the Orang Asli of Malaysia” tell early development activity that has been carry out by the authorities in developing the state is non sing the Orang Asli community. The development has taken Orang Asli formers and current land. This cause devastation to their natural resources and make a suffering life for Orang Asli community. There are attempt return by the authorities to repair this job by give a little agribusinesss strategy. The chief purpose is to let the Orang Asli community to make hard currency harvest agriculture as the beginnings of economic and nutrients. Other than that, authorities besides gives a minimum AIDSs and land and expected that is adequate to back up their lives. This led Orang Asli community to lagged behind comparison to other community in Malaysia. That is grounds on Orang Asli cultural become the poorest of the hapless. This shows that Orang Asli quality of life is at a low degree due to they are economically hapless.
2.2.3 Definition of rural country
There are assorted definitions on rural country. Harmonizing to Department of Statistic ( 2000 ) , rural country is country that populated non more than 10,000 people. This population sum must harmonizing to the nose count of population and lodging. Other than that, Malaysia Urban and Regional Planning Department besides described rural country as country that located far from the urban country. Types of land usage at rural country besides characterise by the agricultural and natural resources such as forest. Following, rural country should dwell with a colony that cover all types of small town and little colony that non more than 10,000 people. Rural country can be classs into several factors which are:
I. Population size
II. Population denseness
III. Urbanization degrees
IV. Level quality of life and public installations ( paved roads, electricity supply, H2O supply )
Types of colonies that exist in rural country consist of traditional small town, FELDA and FELCRA, Orang Asli small town and other countries that screen under Regional Development Authority.
2.3 Conceptual and Philosophical issues of Quality of Life
Concept on quality of life presents merely defined as a criterion of life that has been received by single or a community group. This criterion of life concludes a sense of felicity, life style, satisfaction and wealth. Peoples who received all these standards can be said has achieved a good quality of life. The issue is whether criterion of populating merely standards that can be determine quality of life. Mark Rapley ( 2003 ) stated that quality of life is a driving force in service design, bringing and result rating across medical specialty and societal attention. The quality of life of ‘patients’/ ‘service user ‘ is now normally advocates as a step of the ‘quality ‘ and ‘values of money ‘ of service.
Mark Replay ( 2003 ) besides adds that there are two conceptual thoughts that usage of the thought of quality of life which is an objectiveness and subjectiveness. Concept objectiveness in quality of life can be defined as an attainment of assorted basic life demands such as a nutrient and shelter which is considered common to all civilization. Other than that, objectiveness construct is stand foring external life status such as economical factors. Subjectivity in quality of life is concern about the feeling that single get in their life. It is more on assessment of the thing that they get in their life.
Figure 2.1 show the differences between the external status ( the stuff life sphere ) and the internal, personal component of people ( the personal life sphere ) . This figure tries to demo that what precisely an aims affair about and the subjective affair are about. Robert J.Rogerson ( 1999 ) described a material life sphere can be viewed either as a geographical infinite within which topographic point is people live. So the material life sphere is the nonsubjective construct in defines a quality of life. In other word, material life sphere is a stimulation for life satisfaction.
Personal life sphere included a subjective appraisal of life, step in term of satisfaction as good mensurate a features of people. What are mean by features of people was their penchants, precedences, aspiration and values system.
Harmonizing to Robert J.Rogerson, type A is a research based on the accessing the material life sphere and using primary societal indexs. Type B is more on the personal life sphere which mean that they more on feature of people which stand foring about the feeling, behavior and others. Type C researches are more on subjective well being research where quality of life is a direct step of single cognitive and effectual reaction to his ain life.
Material life country is the concern about the status that can act upon single quality of life. This is because types of work, lodging status, topographic point of life can do quality of life be better or possibly become worse. This is because the influences is come from outside and the person are can non command it by himself.
Meanwhile personal life sphere is the factors that can be manipulated by the single itself. This is because these personal life spheres are controlled by the person. the rating of this types of construct are based on the single feeling that influenced by the experience, behavior and satisfaction from the single itself.
Robert L. Schalock, Ivan Brown, Roy Brown, Robert A. Cummins, David Felce, Leena Matikka, Kenneth D. Keith, and Trevor Parmenter ( 2002 ) in article entitle “Conceptualization, Measurement, and Application of Quality of Life for Persons With Intellectual Disabilities”described quality of life are concern about sphere of good being, inter and intra personal variableness, personal context, perceptual experience, values, pick and personal control. So the better apprehension will be obtained if all of these standards can be explained in item.
I. Domain of good being
There be tonss of facets that must be determined by the invidual in execute their life. For illustration person are allowed to find the thing that most of import sphere in their life such as a emotional well being, interpersonal relationship, stuff good being, physical well being, self finding, societal inclusion and right. So single must able to recognize what is the of import demand to them. The well being is non determined on how many sum that single can acquire but on how valuable that things can be in the single life.
II. Inter and intra personal variableness
Variability is the most sphere of good being that taken by single to see in their life. Therefore, it is see a different person, different community and different cultural because quality of life for each person is different from one to another.
III. Personal context
Peoples context are the apprehension of people about their context of environment that are of import to them in their life. This can be influenced by the topographic point that they live, work and drama. This environment should be able to suit single harmonizing to their feeling, involvement, demand and values. This will let them to accommodate with the environing environment at the topographic point that they live.
Percept in quality of life is a single statements about the persons perceives at any minute in their life. The alterations of positions may be go on harmonizing to the alterations of clip and state of affairs. However this is needed to see the grounds of the alterations to make a betterments to have a better quality of life.
V. Values, pick and personal control
This is associating to pick that has been made by single. So in other word, it is single ability to command over their involvement in term of activities, intercession and environment. This is because every facet in quality of life brings different values into person ‘s life.
2.4 Important of Quality Of Life
Quality of life has been used as a tool to mensurate the well being status of single and community. Changes in size and population distribution will make unstable on populating criterion of a community. Using index that have been used in step a quality of life, degree of populating status of people can easy obtain. This will assist responsible parties to developed schemes in bettering the quality of life of people. It will heighten a people good being degree. Quality of life affair really should be a end on every development that creates for people. This will give benefit for people and chance for people to bask their life.
There are three ways that can be use on demoing how importance quality of life which is at national, community and single degree. On national intent, quality of life can be use as a tool on step a criterion of life of population at the state. Result that obtained will demo the efficient authorities that function state. The consequence can be used to mensurate on the current state of affairs that happens in that state. If there is peace, it means that people are satisfied with their current quality of life. These leads on economic system development by attract investors to come and put in the state. It will make a occupation chances for local people to heighten their income.
In community life, quality of life has been used as a symbol of their community power. For a state that has tonss of ethic, it is of import to demo their accomplishment to the other cultural. Strong community will enable them to talk for their community right and carry through their demand. Quality of life has used as a criterion to mensurate satisfaction degrees in its community. If they do non accomplish their coveted quality of life, so they will seek hard until they achieve to go a strong community. Same scenario will go on to when accomplishing a personal quality of life. Level of satisfaction on person will find reaction on how single will respond to the community life.
2.5 Differences between urban and rural quality of life
Harmonizing Annette Spellerberg, Denis Huschka and Roland Habich ( 2006 ) , in article entitle ‘quality of life in rural country: Procedures of divergency and convergence ‘ , rural country has its ain benefit from it geographical location. Economic index is non a major factor when mensurating rural quality of life because they enjoy on lower criterion of life. They besides states that rural community really map as balancer to homogenization and disruption that has been causes by the international economic procedure. Other than that, urban country has been used as a drive force for rural country development but the rearward state of affairs go on when the concentration development that happen in urban country has cause rural countries continue to dawdling buttocks.
Spellberg ( 2006 ) besides explain that a force per unit area of life in urban countries has push out urban household to the rural country. In suburban country, procedure of civilization assimilation happen between the rural and urban. Impact may go on on flat quality of life for people that migrate from urban country to rural country. This is because installations and public-service corporations that provided at rural country are non same as the installations that provide at urban country. Therefore, their demands and demands may non be fulfilled when they were in rural countries. Other than that, decrease of quality of life besides causes by the deficiency sense of topographic point because they are non in their beginning topographic points.
Index that has been used on mensurating rural quality of life consist types of work, lodging status, income degree, leisure and societal relationship. Index of lodging status for illustration refers to general satisfaction of occupant to their lodging status and it environing countries. Finding gather from the research that has been done by Spellberg ( 2006 ) show that people live in rural country enjoy a high degree of satisfaction with the criterion of lodging than the people that life in urban countries.
A spread between rural and urban in the affair of subjective well being was non clearly defined. Other satisfaction of life in term of household, leisure and wellness could much more of import to personal felicity and general satisfaction instead than income and richness.
In decision, there are differences between achievement quality of life in urban and rural countries. This difference can be seen in footings of mensurating quality of life between these two countries. This is because the indexs used are different due to different geographical locations and the types of development that happen environing it. Peoples in urban country are more satisfied with the stuff values instead than people in rural country that more on satisfaction on life and societal relationship. For illustration, sense of vicinity ‘s relation or societal relation is stronger in rural country instead than people in urban country. This is because in rural, they lived as a one community and depend for each other.
If there is dissension between them it will take to uneasy environment and because of that they can non run into their felicity in life. Different scenario occurs in urban countries due to the absence of clip, the vicinity dealingss are non taken earnestly by them. Therefore it is non surprising that the people in urban countries do non cognize their ain neighbors.
2.6 Measurement Quality Of Life
How to mensurate a quality of life? Early researches have been made is non merely utilizing a societal index but besides utilizing an economic index. Both of these indexs will demo about societal and economic degree of a society. Harmonizing to the Malaysia Quality of Life study ( 2004 ) indexs that use to mensurate quality of life are income degree, working life, wellness, instruction, environment, household life, societal engagement, civilization and leisure. On income index it will mensurate on gross income and criterion of life. Other than that, income besides uses to see whether the person can prolong their income for their ego and household. Following, the types of work besides can be used to mensurate the flat income of single. All of this is can non be obtain in rural countries. This have causes many people to go several stat mis to happen work that can provides a better life pay.
Working life index are usage to mensurate the types of work and working status environment of the community. At the rural country, high-income occupations are hard to be obtained. Other than that, there are low rates of work assortment and these do them to make same occupations all the clip. A type of occupation that normally occurs in rural country is based on agricultural activities in a little graduated table. So they can non obtain a high income degree with sort of occupations.
Following is wellness index that uses to analyze about the physically and outlook of people at the survey country. Good healthy will enable people to work and socialist more efficaciously. This index will enable to observe their entree to the wellness services. Even though they authorities are making more and better wellness installations but the consequence is frequently denied entree for those unable to go the distance to acquire the needful services.
Family life index is used to mensurate how strongly the concatenation relationship between household member. Other than that, it will enable us to see types of societal construction and how it will lend on enhance a quality of life. Social engagement will demo about an engagement of an person on their community. Lack of leading and support from the community is one of job that can be forestalling that community to be a strong community. Other than that, it is ways to see if they are willing to lend in societal, political, spiritual and community activities.
Other than that, the measuring on quality of life besides must include the degree of practise among community about civilization and leisure. This is one of ways to place their community individuality. Other than that, the cognition about their usage and tradition are besides can be obtain. A civilization aspect gives cognition on societal behavior of those communities. It is an of import portion on to see whether the community ‘s relationship is still practising presents.
2.6.1 Ethic of step quality of life
Harmonizing to the R. L. Schalock ( 2002 ) , the first thing before step quality of life understands the grade of which people enjoy good quality in life. Measure quality of life should enable to heighten people quality of life by taking an action to better the obstruction that presently decreased people quality of life. Other than that, the measuring consequence must be able to assist and should ne’er promote accomplishing a low quality of life.
Measuring quality of life is normally carried out by identified what are the specific things that have to value by single. After that, it must be matched with the person ‘s perceptual experience or their felicity. Normally this measuring is concern with the “subjective” and “Objectives” measuring. The most normally method that being usage is by mensurating their life experiences to cognize the positive values that happen to the single across clip and among their cultural. Other than that, this besides can be done by depicting their positive valued into something that can be step. Following, the method that can be used is the quantitative measuring. This done by making a graduated table to depict the degree of their satisfaction between the “best” and the “worst” .
2.7 Malaysia rural societal policy and it characteristic
Harmonizing to the Malaysia rural societal policy diary ( 2008 ) , Malaysia rural policy is cover a policy that helps farmer through supplying a basic life demands to better quality and productiveness of the harvests. Although Malaysia has a faced great procedure of urbanisation as a tool on develop the state, agricultural sector has non be ignored but still practising peculiarly in rural country. This is because rural country is topographic points where the autochthonal Malaysia practising an agricultural activity. Through a ‘new economic policy ‘ that has been implement after an cultural struggle 1969 to cut down of poorness particularly for autochthonal Malaysia, authorities has come on several schemes which are:
- Development of land, increase the cultivated land country and relocation of landless husbandmans to turn hard currency harvests.
- To better a house land capital building which are drainage undertaking in Kelantan State program and Ji Muda Kedah.
- Supply a fertilize, high output seeds, subsidies for high output harvests and a agricultural technique to better agricultural harvest output, spread outing oil thenar and other economic harvest seting country.
- The execution of the monetary value subsidy system, cut down market hazards, to protect the involvements of production for husbandmans.
- Provide loans for a husbandman to heighten their agricultural production.
- Make a husbandman market in urban Centre to let husbandman to sell straight to consumer without involve the 3rd parties.
With all these schemes, Malaysia has able to convey out rural people out of poorness while at the same clip protect a basic life demands of the husbandmans.
Since 2001, authorities has launch a ‘National Vision Policy ‘ with an anti poorness plan that focus on the autochthonal cultural minorities in distant countries. Other than that, authorities besides provide lodging, H2O supply and sanitation system, basic life conditions and medical societal services for those targeted people.
Other than that, by think that lone instruction that will assist people to heighten their quality of life, authorities has come out with the ‘Compulsory Education Law ‘ for 6 to 15 twelvemonth kids. This is one ways that will promote and coercing people particularly in rural countries that has high per centums of non traveling to school. This policy is supported by done the development of new school edifice and school betterment in term of survey status and quality of instruction.
In decision, authorities really play a immense function on heightening a quality of life for the rural. Government has been behind of the scene for every development that happens. Government and private sectors must be collaborating to supply a development that can convey felicity and public assistance for the Malaysia people.
2.8 Application of quality of life in different state
Quality of life research has been conduct about on every state that exists in the Earth. This is one ways to mensurate a degree of populating criterion in that state. It will assist to convey people from other state to go resident or merely for travel. So the consequence of quality of life will be as a tool to cognize the existent degree of quality of life in that state. There is differentness between urban and rural quality of life. So it is importance to good understand about urban and rural quality of life.
2.8.1 Quality of life in urban country
Singapore for illustration is one of the state has done quality of life research several times. As a F.T. Seik, Yuen and L. Chin ( 1999 ) reference, there are about three surveies has been done on the measuring of quality of life in Singapore. This survey has been done by Kau and Wang ( 1995 ) , Foo ( 1998 ) and Kau ( 1998 ) . First survey by Kau and Wang ( 199 ) is about the life satisfaction from 329 respondents aged 15 twelvemonth and above 1993. The index that has been used is more on about the societal, wellness and economic status. Second surveies made by Foo ( 1998 ) are to mensurate overall life satisfaction every bit good as to mensurate an importance and satisfaction towards assorted facets of life. Third surveies made by Kau ( 1998 ) are measure satisfaction with life in the Singapore. It step utilizing a likert-scale with ‘1 ‘ is for really dissatisfaction degree and ‘6 ‘ as a really satisfied degree.
Decision and happening that can be found are people in Singapore are reasonably satisfied with their overall quality of life. Education and income is two indexs that have impact on Singaporean overall life satisfaction. They score high in term of value healthy and household life but low degree on the leisure and consumer goods.
126.96.36.199 Hong Kong
This is the sum-up on surveies of subjective that has been done by Wan, P. S. , Law, K. W. K. , & A ; Wong, T. K. Y. ( 2008 ) entitle Subjective wellbeing. Surveies on the quality of life at Hong Kong are concern about the subjective index which is based on the respondent subjective perceptual experience and rating of their lives and experiences. This survey is done by the Hong Kong Institute of Asia-Pacific Studies in twelvemonth 1988 under the undertaking ‘Indicator of Hong Kong Social Development ‘ . The undertaking has been done for several old ages until they develop an index, the SDI 2000 which uses to mensurate the societal development in Hong Kong.
The survey is about subjective well being of the respondent. The findings of the survey indicate that Hong Kong Chinese are more satisfied with their ain personal lives instead than social status. The subjective well being is diminutions in 1995, although they still satisfied with their personal lives. Other than that, their assurance in the district hereafter is significantly lower. It besides found that, there are considered a good wellness, peace of head and money as the most of import thing that could take to their felicity.
Using same questionnaire set merely like the first survey, Wan, P. S. , Law, K. W. K. , & A ; Wong, T. K. Y. ( 2008 ) launch another survey that examined the mean ego reported to develop a composite index to reflect alterations in quality of life over the period from 1990 to 1997. It was found that the personal well being index was more robust to the alterations and merely acquire alteration with the planetary tendency. Other than that, the societal good being index showed more obvious alterations over clip.
2.8.2 Quality of life in rural country
188.8.131.52 New Zealand
New Zealand is a 1 of the state that has done a quality of life research in a rural country. Maori people are an Aboriginal people that normally live in New Zealand rural country. This research has been done by the Social Policy Research Unit of the Family Centre ( Lower Hutt ) and the Population Studies Centre, University of Waikato. Study instance of the survey is on Wellinton Tent Trust and the Palmerston North Maori Trust. The research is about understanding the well-being of Maori people because they ( Royal Commission on Social Policy: 1988 ) believe that ‘a good society is one that allows people to be heard, to hold say in their hereafter and pick in life ‘ . For them, societal good being includes that sense of belonging that affirms claims their self-respect and individuality and allows them to work in their everyday ‘s functions.
First of all it is of import to cognize what Maori people understand on quality of life. Harmonizing New Zealand Maori Case Study 1 ( 2007 ) study, that refers on Love, Maulaulau and Pratt ( 2005 ) survey, they identify that Maori people understanding concept quality of life would underscore religious, household, tribal and societal religious connexion on duty, community relationship, authorization and usage of hereditary land as a constituent of Maori wellbeing with other by and large shared constituent such as wellness attention, equal lodging and other resources.
Finding of the research shows that Maori community is more concern of human relationship with in item is on the household relationship. This is because the full respondent that has been interview provinces that societal activities that happen around them is non merely for themselves but besides for the immature coevalss. Other than that, they need to be able with the household and near to their ain environment which are topographic points that they are close to household. If we look on item, it supposes to demo how the strong is household bond between them. Surveies besides show that respondent besides must be able to be environing by a household or if non surrounded by, they must be able to entree them rapidly either through telephone, travel or electronic mail.
With the household around them, they will able to rehearse their trust so that what they are making presents can be pattern by the immature coevalss in the hereafter. “What we are today, is what we are in the future” , this is the right motto to depict how strong bond between Maori community. It shows that all bequest or tradition must be go throughing through one coevals to other coevals. This is a construct on quality of life or wellbeing that Maori people want to accomplish in their community.
So the decision that can be made from the survey that has been done in this 5 state is differences attacks must be take to mensurate different group of people. Not every index that used in urban country can be used to mensurate quality of life of rural country people. This shows that non all the index can be used to mensurate Orang Asli quality of life. This is because they have their ain apprehension about Quality of life. So different attacks must be used when look into their quality of life.
2.9 Malayan Quality of Life index
Harmonizing to Malaysia quality of life 2004 study, quality of life is defined as embracing personal promotions, a healthy life style, entree and freedom to prosecute cognition, and achieving a criterion of life, which surpasses the fulfillment of the basic and psychological demands of the person, to accomplish a degree of societal well-being compatible with the state ‘s aspirations. I genuinely agree with the definition that has given in that study. This is because good quality of life is depending on felicity of the persons and communities. Easy entree to all this installations will heighten their quality of life.
Table 2.1 show index ‘s that has been pointed out by Malaysia authorities step Malaysia quality of life.
Table 2.1: Indexs Used In Computation of Malaysian Quality Of Life Index
Index of the constituent
Sub index of index
Income & A ; distribution
* Real Per Capita Income ( + )
* Gini Coefficient ( – )
* Incidence of Poverty
* Unemployment Rate ( – )
* Trade Disputes ( per 1000 Workers ) ( – )
* Man -Days lost due to industrial action ( – )
* Industrial Accident
rate ( – )
Transport & A ; Communication
* Private auto & A ; Motorcycles ( per thousand population ) ( + )
* Commercial Vehicles ( per thousand population ) ( + )
* Road development index ( + )
* Telephones ( per thousand Population ) ( + )
* Internet Subscribers ( per thousand Population ) ( + )
* Average Daily Newspaper Circulation ( + )
* Male Life Expectancy at Birth ( + )
* Female Life Expectancy at Birth ( + )
* Infant Mortality Rate ( – )
* Doctor-Population Ratio ( – )
* Literacy Rate ( + )
* Pre-School Engagement Rate ( + )
* Secondary School engagement Rate ( + )
* University Participation Rate ( + )
* Primary School Teacher-Student Ratio ( – )
* Secondary School Teacher-Student Ratio ( – )
* Average Price of Medium-Low Cost House to Per Capita Income ( – )
* % Low-cost Housing Unit of measurements to Entire Low-Income Households ( + )
* % Housing Unit of measurements With Piped Water ( + )
* % Housing Unit of measurements With Electricity ( + )
* Air Quality ( – )
* Water Quality ( + )
* % Forested Land ( + )
* Divorces ( as a per centum of population aged 18-50 ) ( – )
* • Crude Birth Rate ( per thousand population ) ( – )
* • Household Size ( – )
* • Juvenile Crimes
* ( as a per centum of population aged 10-18 ) ( – )
* Registered Voters ( as a per centum of population aged 21 and supra ) ( + )
* Membership in Registered Non-Profit Societies ( + )
* Number of Registered Residents ‘ Associations ( + )
* Crimes ( per thousand population ) ( – )
* Road Accidents ( per 1000 vehicles ) ( – )
Culture & A ; Leisure
* Membership in Public Libraries ( per thousand population ) ( + )
* Television Viewers ( per thousand population ) ( + )
* Domestic Hotel Guests ( per thousand population ) ( + )
Beginnings: Malayan Quality Of Life 2004
In this MQOL ( 2004 ) study, there are 42 indexs selected to stand for the 11 constituents ( Table 2.1 ) . The indexs selected for each constituent were based on their importance, how best they reflect the peculiar constituent and the handiness of informations on a clip series footing. All the indexs were assigned a positive or a negative mark. The indexs with positive marks ( life anticipation, literacy rate ) means that an addition in the numerical value denote bettering conditions while those with a negative mark ( infant mortality rate, unemployment rate ) denote the contrary. The rectification of the tendency way was carried out on the indexs with negative marks so that all upward tendencies show an betterment in good being, while downward tendencies indicate the contrary.
2.10 Orang Asli Policy
The Aboriginal Peoples Act 1954 ( Act 134 ) or is the jurisprudence statement that provided for the protection, well-being and promotion of the Orang Asli of Peninsular Malaysia. This act is formed to protect Orang Asli from the influence of the Communist. So these act giving authorities extended control over Orang Asli, in the involvement of national security. This shows on strong authorities control over Orang Asli. The Government control Orang Asli people through the section of Orang Asli or JHEOA. JHEOA is a section that has been established by the Malaysia authorities to taking attention all the affair that concern Orang Asli. Harmonizing to Dentan, K. Endicott, A.G. Gomes and M.B. Hooker ( 1997 ) , Malaysia authorities has stated that their end for Orang Asli is making the ultimate integrating with the Malay races to organize one community. They intend to state that it should be natural integrating as opposed to unreal assimilation. That giving account that authorities attempt to unite this two cultural and name that procedure that as assimilation procedure.
Dentan, K. Endicott, A.G. Gomes and M.B. Hooker ( 1997 ) , refer to Mohd. Tap ( 1990 ) pointed that in the late 1970, authorities through JHEOA start to change overing Orang Asli to Islam. It reflects the authorities purpose from assimilation to do Orang Asli being absorbed into the Malay population. Laws of Malaysia, act 134 stated that it is possible for Orang Asli go a Muslim and retain the individuality as Orang Asli. This is because legal definition has reference that Malay is a individual who speaks Malay linguistic communication, pattern a Malay imposts and a Muslim. So even though Orang Asli has their ain linguistic communication and civilization, but they still can talk and rehearse the Malay usage.
Harmonizing to Alberto G. Gomes ( 2004 ) the grounds of authorities introduced assimilation policy are because they refer the Orang Asli faith as a superstitious notion instead that spiritual. Dentan ( 1997 ) says that many Malays believe that Orang Asli would be a better off as lower category rural Malay. The convention to Islam would elate the Orang Asli, which is what they call it as a ‘spiritual development ‘ .
Other than that, the ground that authorities actively advancing Islam in late 1970 is because UMNO which is dominant political parties in Malaysia has to competed with others political parties such as PAS and DAP. Orang Asli that has a low outlook and cognition at that clip was control by the authorities so that they will votes for the UMNO parties when the election is held. It can be turn outing because until presents Orang Asli community has been learning to vote for UMNO.
Alberto G. Gomes ( 2004 ) refers Dentan ( 1997 ) say that many Malays particularly political are unhappy because Orang Asli is called ‘original people ‘ . This is because it means that merely Orang Asli is the initial population that live in Malaysia. It besides conveying the massage that a Malay merely another immigrant groups. So absorbing the Orang Asli into the Malay population is work outing this job by making another subgroup of Malay.
The policy that has been implementing early is for protected Orang Asli community from the Communist influenced. The authorities intentation on change overing Orang Asli to be a Muslim is one of the Islamic machineries motions to do more Moslem people in this state. That goes same to the Christian machineries besides because nowadays bulk of Orang Asli is follow this two spiritual. The attempt must be done of course and can non be force. At the terminal, if there are focing happen so they Orang Asli will can non execute good in their spiritual because of their bosom is non ready plenty to acquire the alterations.
2.11 Socioeconomic development of Orang Asli
Socioeconomic of Orang Asli is depending on environment that occurs in Orang Asli community. If we take a expression on the Orang Asli colony, bulk is located a rural country which is boundary lines with the wood. Their economic normally depend on the agricultural and forest beginnings. Agricultural activity that been pattern by this group is on a little graduated table. Normally this group is carving a gum elastic, oil thenar and forest beginnings such as Calamus rotang and ‘petai ‘ . So their income based on this activity is in little and merely plenty for bear their day-to-day live merely. They merely can purchase a basic demand for their household.
Harmonizing to Alberto G. Gomes ( 2004 ) that refers to Nickolas Orang Asli that are depending on the wood has been threatened by the authorities economic activity. During the ‘opening up ‘ of the state in the late nineteenth and early 20th century ‘s, woods were treated as if they were weeds to be cleared, and transformed into plantations and Sn mines. The push for economic development accelerated the transition of woods into plantations, mines and land developments. So logging and glade activity has been taken out by the authorities and it affects the Pongo pygmaeus asli land. The building of roads and dikes destroyed big piece of lands of wood and, with them, Orang Aslilivelihoods. This is the scenario that happen is last few decennaries on the Orang Asli community.
Now after all the Malaysian has experienced a 57 twelvemonth independency, the Orang Asli socioeconomic has increased. This is because, the agricultural strategy that has been introduced by the authorities utilizing the RISDA ( Rubber Industry Smallholders Development Authority ) and FELCRA ( Federal Land Consolidation and Rehabilitation Authority ) , has increased degree of income for Orang Asli communities. The gum elastic farm has been planted in the Orang Asli small town. Even it in little graduated table, it has giving the alterations for Orang Asli community to acquire their lasting income from that farm. The increasing of gum elastic and oil thenar monetary values in universe market let this community to acquire more income.
NEM ( New Economic Model, 2010 ) that has been introduced by the Prime Minister is one policy that can take to heighten the quality of life of Orang Asli. This is because NEC is focus in heightening the 40 % last income strata in Malaysia which included Orang Asli community. With this the economic degree of Orang Asli can be move into the better status.
2.12 Orang Asli and Quality Of life
Quality and life and Orang Asli have a important relationship. Quality of life can be use as a tool to mensurate criterions of life of Orang Asli. Index that has been utilizing in mensurating quality of life such as instruction, income degree, wellness and others can be used to mensurate Orang Asli quality of life.
High rate on illiteracy, low degree on income and wellness among the Orang Asli can be solved if quality of life research can be done for this minority group. With the quality of life research, it can observe factors that lead to the decreased of quality of life of Orang Asli. For illustration, Orang Asli land that has been taken off by the authorities could lend to the decrease of Orang Asli quality of life. This is because in that land they can construct a house or works some harvest for their nutrient beginnings. This all can lend to heighten quality of life of Orang Asli. But, if their land still be taken off by the irresponsible parties, so their quality of life will still at the low degree.
Survey on quality of life in Malaysia that has been done by Amalina Haslyssa ( 2008 ) on Orang Asli ethnic at Desa Temuan, Petaling Jaya has a usage same index with the survey that has been done in Singapore, New Zealand and Hong Kong. The different between all the surveies is the attack that has utilizing when making the surveies. Finding from the surveies in Singapore and Hong Kong show that respondent are satisfied with their personal life and their quality of life. It is different state of affairs occurs in surveies on Orang Asli quality of life. This is because, the respondent are non satisfied with their quality of life in the new colony that has been giving by developer after their old colony has been taking for the land development. Even though they have given houses at the new colony, they are confronting a job to accommodate the new environment of life in term of the economic and societal term. This is because their old income beginnings such as plantation and farm has been destroyed when their land has been taken off. So, because of deficiency of instruction degree they are confronting a job to happen a new occupation. At a new colony they could non pattern their societal and cultural activities decently such as a nuptials because marrying normally will stop with the festival that can drag into late of the forenoon. This is because in that country they will have a ailment from other occupant from other cultural about the loud noises that has been produced during the festival. With this all obstruction, Orang Asli can non run into their felicity and these giving bad per centums on quality of life degree.
Chapter 2 is the theoretical portion based on survey that wants to be carried out. The theoretical for every facet of survey will be explained in detailed so that the farther apprehension will be obtained when making the survey. This survey is about the quality of life for the Orang Asli community at the rural country. So the theoretical survey must be done on the quality of life, Orang Asli and besides the rural country.
Survey on quality of life of Orang Asli is really of import in effort to convey this community to go same degree with other cultural in Malaysia. Knowing their job is the best ways to cover and work outing this affair. Theoretical about quality of life besides can be used and implement in heightening their criterion of life. The betterment of Orang Asli quality of life will find the bright hereafter of Orang Asli following coevals.