Determining Image Of Greece From A Tourist Perspective Tourism Essay

It is argued that one of the most popular tourer finishs of Europe part is Greece with a great background in touristry, underpinning it with the matchless bequest and the enviable cordial reception of Grecian people from ancient times ( Boniface, 2005a ) . As a portion of Balkan peninsula, it is beneficially located on the east side of European Union. It can be easy seen as it is located in a intersection between East and West therefore, the influences from several civilizations through the ages had given to Greece a really different cultural mentality from the remainder of E.U states ( Boniface, 2005b ) .

Greece can be divided in two chief districts, the mainland which comprises the northern and cardinal Greece, the Athens part and the Peloponnese, and the Islands which comprise the Ionian islands, the Cyclades, the Sporades, the Dodecanese and the Crete ( Burton, 1995 ) . The surface of Greece is about merely 132.000 square kilometer nevertheless, the singular long coastline of about 16.000 kilometers in combination with the well-known warm Mediterranean clime, particularly in the summer season, turned Greece chiefly after 1970 a touristry finish in which the bulk of tourers are sun-seekers instead culture-seekers as Greece is besides rich of ancient memorials ( Burton, 1995 ) .

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Greece ‘s long tradition in touristry, can be seen from the ancient times as the alien, translated in Greek linguistic communication “ xenos ” , was considered sacred and his or her protection were a duty of the male parent of fabulous Olympic Gods Zeus ( Buhalis and Diamantis, 2001 ) . In modern-day times, Greece as a finish became popular in the mid- 70s when the touristry demand within Mediterranean part changed from the unpopular Spanish resorts to alternate finishs ( Buhalis, 2001 ) . Today, the Ministry of civilization and touristry supervisor Greek National Tourism Organisation ( GNTO ) which is the responsible administration for planning, advancing, developing and implementing policies in public and private sectors severally ( Boniface, 2005b ) . However, the GNTO ‘s planning turns to be hapless and the administration faces troubles to organize the state ‘s touristry sector, therefore the deficiency of strategic vision to derive competitory advantage among other similar finishs is important for development of Grecian touristry in the 21st century ( Boniface, 2005a ) .

In order to be after a strategic program of Greece as a touristry finish, the image of the state to possible tourers is a important component which needs to be considered and actions need to be made in order to mensurate this image. This paper will demo the most efficient methodological analysis which needs to be followed to capture the complex nature of Greece as a finish image for two different groups of tourers.

Harmonizing to Doswell ( 2000 ) , travelers either see a finish both for remaining and disbursement clip merely within to it, or they take advantage while remaining in finish and visit topographic points nearby or instead, they visit multiple finishs one by one. The construct of the finish has been studied often from several research workers, accordingly and in touristry literature many definitions can be found.

Finishs clearly can be seen as topographic points which have been touristic developed to pull visitants ( Doswell, 2000 ) and because of this function in touristry industry, finishs became one of the most valuable elements of the touristry system ( Cooper et Al, 1998 ) . Finishs can be identified as geographical countries with particular involvement in touristry, countries as states, parts in a state, a metropolis, or rural countries ( Page and Cave, 2006 ) . There are topographic points in which the touristry planning and selling has been developed through political and legislative support ( Buhalis, 2000 ) . In contrast, finishs are besides considered to hold services and installations, attractive forces and comfortss such as adjustments, transits to, with in and from them and accessory services, normally local organisations from public sector ( Cooper et Al, 1998 ) , in order to supply tourers legion of several characteristics ( Leiper, 1995 cited Buhalis 2000 ) Therefore, finishs as Greece, should non be thought as a single-dimensional component of touristry, contrarwise, they should be seen as an ensemble of merchandises and experiences which tourers consume in the geographical country of Greece ( Page and Cave, 2006 ) .

Tourists normally, are under some important influences in order to do a determination and see a topographic point. These influences are organizing an image which the possible visitant creates for a peculiar finish, and this image had been proven to be an indispensable subscriber to the decision-making procedure ( Um and Crompton, 1990 ) . Therefore, sellers are normally methodically constructing up the image of a topographic point through the old ages to go and stay positive, even if the image is no longer stand foring the world, in order to accomplish greater success and go more attractive for carrying visitants ( Holloway, 2006 ) .

As Cooper ( 1998 p.102 ) argues, “ finish images attract tourers, motivate the visit and hence excite the whole touristry system ” , it is clear from this statement that the image is a powerful instrument in touristry industry and it is important in order to specify what it means, to separate the elements that consist it and to find the forces which influence it.

The conceptualization of image is non easy. The definition of the image can be found in subjects such psychological science, behavior, geographics and selling, but rather surprisingly, in different significances and definitions ( Jenkins, 1999 ) . Indeed, the definitions which can be found are every bit many as the bookmans devoted to specify it ( Gallarza et al. , 2002 ) . In psychological science the term of image is ascribed to a ocular contemplation of the world ( Jenkins, 1999 ) . Psychologists are associating image to the survey of imagination which represents the particular process to memorise multisensory information. Specifically this means that the single creates images in the head by utilizing all of his or her senses ( Achtner and Brent, 1991 ) . As client ‘s satisfaction is at the head of tourer finish sellers, imagination in correlative with ingestion can increase the satisfaction of the traveler and add value to the experience of the finish visit ( McInnis and Price, 1987 ) . In touristry, image can be referred to a mixture of beliefs, thoughts and feelings which tourers hold for a topographic point ( Compton, 1979 cited Alhemound and Armrstrong 1996 ) . Images in touristry can be considered as a amount of touchable and intangible elements, tourers may hold feelings related to employees or occupants, nevertheless, the chief component of touristry sector is the provided services ( Gallarza et al. , 2002 ) . Depending on this image, and the perceptual experiences and feelings which create, possible tourers who expect benefits of the finish are making to the determination to see the finish ( Tapachai and Waryszak, 2000 ) . Therefore intangible elements of touristry like image are the chief factors that motivate travelers to see finishs ( Gallarza et al, 2002 ) .

Finish ‘s image composing complexness had been examined from several touristry research workers. Achtner and Brend ( 1993 ) argued that finish image must be visualized through two different facets, the property facet in which image must be discernible as many different traits specific to the topographic point, and the holistic facet in which image is determining as a entire feeling of the finish. Indeed, normally perspective tourers are unable to measure specific traits of a finish, therefore, are measuring the entire position of the finish ( Tapachai and Waryszak, 2000 ) . However, the nature of these facets must be distinguished, for illustration substructure or monetary values, are determining touchable or functional features. In contrast, abstract feelings or atmosphere are determining intangible psychological features ( Ryan and Cave, 2005 ) . Finish images vary from those based on “ common ” between the finish touchable features like monetary values or transit agencies or “ common ” intangible features like clime or friendliness, and from the “ alone ” for each finish touchable features like events or characteristics and the “ alone ” intangible like aura of a finish ( Achtner and Brend, 1991 ) . Baloglu and McCleary ( 1999a ) in their survey of a formation of a finish image theoretical account, discussed this psychological traits impacting image yet farther, they conclude that the image from the intangible prism assessed from single ‘s emotional ratings, which are reflecting the aura of a topographic point or the feeling that the single receives from it, and the perceptual experiences and cognition which reflect believes and feelings that persons hold toward to the topographic point. These two factors of intangible features are important for the rating of the finish, both elements can contribute for negative or for positive image, perceptual experience and cognition are prior than emotional ratings and the concluding rating of the finish image will be a synthesis of these two factors ( Walmsley and Young, 1998 ) .

From the composing of the finish image can be clear that the factors which influence the finish image can be found in the psychological field such as feelings toward a finish, or in the field of consumer behaviors such as sentiments and ideas for the finish ( Tasci et al, 2007 ) . However, an person to make an image of a finish receives daily, legion influences from its environment, influences in informal manner, from relations, from the school, or through the media, and instead, influences in more formal manner through commercial actions of touristry promotional organic structures ( Howie, 2003 ) . Gunn ( 1997 in Howie 2003 ) distinguished the tourer image formation and processs, from the hypothesis phase to the cheque phase in which tourers evaluate the finish against the images they had before they visited it. In the hypothesis phase Gunn ( 1988 in Cooper et Al, 2008 ) identified the informal non-commercial influences to make the organic images, on the other manus he identified the induced images as a consequence of a commercial action such as promotional programmes of a finish. Gartner ( 1996 ) examined further the interrelatedness between organic and induced images and suggested to be considered as a continuum procedure of eight phases from organic towards induced images. In this procedure the differences can be identified between the phases as the degree of control and the function of promotional organic structures to each phase ( Tasci and Gartner, 2007 ) . Consequently, images that the possible visitants hold for the environment around them, could hold an considerable influence on their travel behavior ( Walmsley and Young, 1998 ) . The assortment of informational beginnings which can be found to this environment could be factors of influence the perceptual experiences and the ratings which determine the formation of person ‘s finish image ( Beerli and Martin, 2004 ) . As a consequence, as already aforementioned, sellers create an image of a finish and it is usual phenomenon that this image does non run into the world of the finish, therefore possible tourers may hold a limited or a incorrect image of the finish ( Um and Crompton, 1992 ) and such an image which has been influenced from these informational beginnings will be important to the decision-making process ( Beerli and Martin, 2004 ) . However, an person as a receiver of these influence it is by and large accepted that will hold subjective images, in comparing with other persons while refers to a finish ( Gallarza et al, 2002 ) . Therefore, the information that an single receives for a finish even if is incorrect or limited is frequently “ filtered ” from personal positions, hence, creates a personal and subjective mental image of a finish ( Tapachai and Waryszak, 2000 ) . These personal positions vary among most of persons, however, Beerli and Martin ( 2004 ) in their survey for the factors act uponing finish image, distinguished these positions to sociodemographic features of an single such as the degree of the instruction, the age and the gender, and to psychological features like motive, personality or the life style. Although psychological features like motive are likely to be more influential for the possible tourers, however, the age and the educational degree underpin the formation of finish image ( Baloglu and McCleary, 1999a ) .

It is apprehensible that the finish image is an component which sellers of a finish can non disregard. The decision-making process seems to be produced by the image of the topographic point that the possible tourers holds ( Tapachai and Waryszak, 2000 ) . Destinations which will be able to bring forth and convey strong and favorable image seems to hold an advantage among the others and could be easier to be preferred ( Son, 2005 ) . Indeed, as already been mentioned finish sellers to derive a competitory advantage often, endeavour to develop a positive image of the finish to lure prospective tourers ( Gatner, 1993 ) . Therefore, the competition among sellers of tourer finishs led to pass a batch of money and clip coincident with the attempts which have been made for a positive image creative activity to the possible tourers ( Baloglu and McCleary, 1999b ) .

However, as aforementioned the finish image could be a powerful implement for sellers to plan a scheme to advance a finish, to accomplish this, nevertheless, actions need to be done to mensurate the image of the possible tourers hold in order to file away an effectual selling scheme ( Reilly, 1990 cited Walmsley and Young, 1998 ) . Unfortunately, as Tasci et Al ( 2007 p.217 ) note “ measuring finish image is still fuzzy in most of the literature ” . Numerous of surveies had been contacted from research workers for mensurating the image of a finish held by perspective tourers and the assortment of methodological analysiss available for touristry practicians are many.

However, the image that an single holds for a topographic point is subjective and the heterogeneousness of the respondents must non be ignored ( Ryan and Cave, 2005 ) . Perspective persons or groups of tourers with similar involvements are possible to concentrate in a different point of position to the properties of a finish and keep wholly different feelings for it, in contrast to groups or persons with dissimilar involvements ( Tasci et al, 2007 ) . A possible group of tourers between the age of 20 to 25, decidedly, will hold a wholly disparate image of Greece as tourer finish than possible tourers between the age of 40 to 45, similarly, possible tourers with high-school instruction degree will hold a wholly different image than a Master ‘s grade or PhD holders. As Greece ‘s 70 % of tourers are between the age of 16 to 40 can be considered as a finish for immature and energetic tourers ( Burton, 1995 ) . Therefore the method which must be employed to carry on the measurement research of Greece as a finish image for tourers between the ages of 20 to 25 and with different educational degree must be efficient to separate the diverseness of images. In order to accomplish this, foremost the methods of research that had applied from research workers in touristry selling field must be acknowledged. These research methods can be distinguished in two different methods, the quantitative and the qualitative method.

In the quantitative method the findings generated through statistical analysis, and normally affect a major sum of people to trust for findings credibleness ( Veal, 2006 ) . The consequences are given in statistical signifier and normally the intent of the method is to give an reply about who is the respondent, where he or she is and when he or she is at that place ( Briggs, 2001 ) . Chiefly, indistinguishable closed-ended inquiries are employed since are easing computing machine utilizing for informations aggregation, statistical analysis and measuring of the responds through marking and evaluation graduated tables ( Brunt, 1997 ) .

On the other manus, qualitative methods findings are generated through subjective responses and perceptual experiences of the respondents towards merchandises and services ( Briggs, 2001 ) . These methods aim to roll up a big figure of information or feelings about a topographic point through a little sample of respondents ( Brunt, 1997 ) . In order to accomplish this, the practicians of qualitative methods are utilizing techniques as inquiries with open-ended replies, in-depth or group interviews in which the interviewer motivates respondents with minimal guidelines to project their feelings or ideas and observations from the participant ( Brunt, 1997 ) . These methods analyzing groups of people, originally came from the anthropology subject, nevertheless have been adapted by sociologists and are normally found as ethnographic researches or ethnographic fieldwork ( Veal, 2006 )

It is clear that both methods are holding advantages, in footings of roll uping and analyzing esteemed and reliable informations for quantitative method, and entering the subjective sentiment of the respondent for qualitative method ( Ryan, 1995 ) . However, they besides have some disadvantages, quantitative methods are impersonal and incorrect inquiries planing may act upon the responds and therefore the consequences ( Brunt, 1997 ) . On the other manus, in qualitative methods the research worker required to measure the consequences hence, deficiency of objectiveness may happen, besides because of the little figure of respondents the findings can non be generalised ( Brunt, 1997 ) . However, both different methods are considered from practicians effective hence, could be used in combination with a purpose the advantages of both methods benefit the research ( Ryan, 1995 ) . As quantitative methods can utilize preliminary information of qualitative methods and computing machines presents are able to analyze qualitative information both methods could be seen working closer together ( Veal, 2006 ) .

In touristry field, research workers of finish image contacted 142 surveies from 1973 to 2000 and produced a overplus of literature ( Pike, 2002 ) . The diverseness of the attack in each survey is noteworthy, nevertheless, two chief types of surveies can be distinguished. The empirical surveies in which the research workers had statistical tools without back uping the research with theoretical model, and on the other manus the most common empirical surveies in which the research workers acknowledge the complexness of measuring of the image by analyzing the methodological analysis that have chosen ( Gallarza and Garcia, 2002 ) . In malice this diverseness of the attack of surveies, the bulk of the research workers has used the similar methods for mensurating the finish image ( Baloglu and Mangaloglu, 2001 ) . These methods can be distinguished to most common among the research workers structured techniques methods following a more quantitative signifier and on the other manus to the unstructured techniques methods concentrating in a more qualitative signifier ( Pike, 2002 ) .

The structured techniques methods are methods in which the respondent assess each of the finish attributes, the aggregative appraisal of these properties will ensue the measuring of the finish image ( Jenkins, 1999 ) . These finish properties, which are selected from the research worker, are indentified and there will be assessed from the respondent as there will be embedded into the standardized techniques of the specific method ( Achtner and Brent, 1991 ) . To accomplish this appraisal of each trait of the finish, surveies based on the structured methods normally utilizing quantitative standardised techniques as semantic derived function or likert type graduated tables ( Baloglu and Mangaloglu, 2001 ) . Structured technique methods can be considered as easy manageable and the informations interlingual rendition and analysis can be done with sophisticated statistical instruments, furthermore, this methods are suiting the respondent to compare similarities and differences between two finishs ( Jenkins, 1999 ) . However, these methods have some disadvantages, as the image is built by the research workers and the predestined properties are set by the research workers the existent properties of the finish might be different ( Tapachai and Waryszak, 2000 ) . Therefore, the respondents are really measuring features that do non represent the image of the finish, but are measuring the image that has been developed by the research workers ( Tapachai and Waryszak, 2000 ) . Structured technique methods could be identified as attribute-based techniques, the respondent measure the finish in property footings, therefore, it does non ease the measuring of the holistic facet of the finish image ( Jenkins, 1999 ) . Indeed, as Baloglu and Mangaloglu ( 2001 p. 3 ) argued: “ these surveies that mensurating image by pre-identified properties fails to capture the ‘richness ‘ of image ” .

The unstructured technique methods on the other manus, are methods in which the respondent has the freedom to depict his or her feelings or feelings for the finish ( Jenkins, 1999 ) . In general, unstructured methods in order to roll up the informations of free descriptions from the respondents are using instruments from qualitative methods as focal point groups or open-ended inquiries ( Achtner and Brent, 1991 ) . This deficiency of foreordained properties facilitates respondents to be able to explicate and discourse freely about their subjective images of things of finish in their heads ( Tapachai and Waryszak, 2000 ) . Therefore, the possibility to go forth out of consideration important elements and dimensions of finish image of the respondent is reduced ( Jenkins, 1999 ) . By roll uping these descriptions, unstructured methods are considered appropriate instruments to analyze and capture the composite nature of finish image ( Baloglu and Mangaloglu, 2001 ) . Consequently, from the manner which the information gathered in the unstructured method, instead to structured method, contributes to mensurate the holistic facet of finish image ( Jenkins, 1999 ) . However, as structured methods, besides unstructured methods have some disadvantages. The pass oning accomplishments of the respondent like verbal and composing accomplishments are variable which affect and turn the inside informations provided extremely changeable ( Achtner and Brent, 1991 ) . Furthermore, because of the nature of the method the analysis from a statistical point of position is limited and does non back up the comparative analysis of the consequences ( Jenkins, 1999 ) .

Puting the model of both structured and unstructured methods which had been used from the bulk of the research workers for mensurating finish image it had been clear that these methods are non able to gestate the multidimensional nature of finish image. As aforesaid Greece as a finish image for groups in different age and instruction degree likely will hold important differences, therefore the method which will be followed must be efficient to mensurate the assortment of sentiments and perceptual experiences for Greece as a finish image.

In order to mensurate image of Greece as a finish from possible tourers the method which will be followed must affect and measure all these facets in order to mensurate the finish image of Greece for these two different groups. An efficient instrument could be a questionnaire designed in two parts which will be distributed to people appealed to go bureaus seeking for information for future vacations. Questionnaire must hold inquiries clearly formulated, easy apprehensible clear in sense of significance for both research workers and the respondents to roll up accurate and thoroughly information ( Pollard et al, 1974 ) . In parallel, inquiries must be interesting to continue the involvement and the good will of the respondent ( Pollard et al, 1974 ) . Demographic information such as age and instruction degree of the respondents are considered really of import for the research consequences hence, will besides necessitate to be collected from the entire sum of the respondents. As illustrated in this paper, property and functional features which consist the finish image can be measured through researches using quantitative structured methods, hence, the first portion of the questionnaire must consist semantic or likert scale inquiries to capture these features of Greece from the responds. These inquiries should include for comparing the most usual properties used from the research workers such as attractive forces, clime, night life or amusement, cost and monetary value degree, tourers sides and activities, friendliness and cordial reception ( Jenkins, 1999 ) . On the other manus, holistic and psychological features can be measured by researches using qualitative unstructured methods, accordingly, the 2nd portion of the inquirer should be constituted from unfastened ended- inquiries. These inquiries will be developed with the part of experts in touristry, selling and consumer behavior Fieldss in order to guarantee that the design of the inquiries will be appropriate for mensurating Greece as a finish image ( Achtner and Brent, 1993 ) . Therefore it is clear that in order to be accomplishable, the entire gaining control of multidimensional image features of Greece as a finish a concurrence of a structured and an unstructured methodological analysiss appear to be ideal method for mensurating this image ( Achtner and Brent, 1993 ) .

In decision, although as Pike ( 2002 ) noted, the last 30 old ages the bulk of the research workers in the field of finish image employed structured methodological analysiss to mensurate finish image, nevertheless the measuring is the most important job for the research workers ( Son, 2005 ) . To operationalise the whole finish image the measuring of it must include both attribute and holistic feelings in analogue with functional and psychological features ( Achtner and Brent, 1991 ) .

The combined usage of structured and unstructured methods is indispensable, nevertheless as abovementioned both methods have restrictions which can non be reduced from the combined usage. As in both methods the research worker will analyze the consequences therefore, will originate a hazard of prejudice, accordingly statistical instruments, which is non the intent to be analysed to this survey, in cooperation with the application of multidimensional methods need to use in order to mensurate in a most accurate mode this multiplex nature of finish image and cut downing bias of the consequences ( Gallarza et al, 2002 ) . In add-on, the struggle of the combination of both methods need to be reduced as the structured method needs a big sum of respondents for precise consequences in contrast to unstructured which needs a major sum of informations from little figure of participants. The consequences of such a research and the effects may act upon the finish in entire, if the research workers fail to construe them or the consequences are incorrect Grecian sellers will be after a scheme based on a incorrect intent therefore, a large sum of touristry resources will be spent for the incorrect end ( Tasci and Gartner, 2007 ) . Greece as a finish image has a batch of positions, an accurate measuring of the image with focal point to both different aforementioned groups of possible tourers will be an indispensable instrument to derive competitory advantage by be aftering a new scheme towards the undermentioned old ages.