Heating and Cooling Curve of Water Sample Essay

Gelatine is a clear. colorless. toffee ( when prohibitionist ) . flavourless solid substance. derived from the collagen inside the tegument and castanetss of animate beings. Substances incorporating gelatine or operation in a similar manner are called gelatinlike. gelatine is an irreversibly hydrolysed signifier of collagen. It is found in some gluey confects every bit good as other merchandises such as marshmallows. gelatine sweet. and some low-fat yoghurt. Household gelatine comes in the signifier of sheets. granules. or pulverization.

Proteins are indispensable foods for the human organic structure. They are one of the edifice blocks of the organic structure. but can besides function as a fuel beginning. Proteins are polymer ironss made of aminic acids linked together by peptide bonds. In nutrition. proteins are broken down in the tummy during digestion by enzymes known as peptidases into smaller polypeptides to supply aminic acids for the organic structure. including the necessary amino acids that can non be biosynthesized by the organic structure itself.

Biosynthesis is an enzyme-catalyzed procedure in cells of populating beings by which substrates are converted to more complex merchandises.

Collagen is a group of of course happening proteins found in animate beings. particularly in the flesh and connective tissues of mammals. It is the chief constituent of connective tissue. and is the most plentiful protein in mammals. The fibroblast is the most common cell which creates collagen.

A peptidase is any enzyme that conducts proteolysis. that is. Begins protein katabolism by hydrolysis ( the chemical dislocation of bonds due to the reaction of H2O ) of the peptide bonds that link aminic acids together in the polypeptide concatenation organizing the protein.

Denaturation is a procedure in which proteins or nucleic acids lose the third construction and secondary construction which is present in their native province. by application of some external emphasis or compound such as a strong acid or base. a concentrated inorganic salt. an organic dissolver. or heat.

A peptidase is a protein and like all proteins has a precise 3-D form ensuing in portion. from the interactions and adhering between the amino acids which make up the protein. Part of the enzyme molecule has a specific 3-D shaped active site where the substrate binds and reactions occur. This active site is specific for the substrate which fits. like a lock and cardinal. with the enzyme. In the instance of peptidases the active site form is specific for aminic acids and peptide bonds of the protein substrate which allows the specific reactions – hydrolysis of proteins – to happen.

gelatine is a signifier of collagen that has undergone a chemical reaction to alter it somewhat and do it able to solidify when you’re cooking with it. When you’re doing a gelatine sweet. you dissolve the gelatine mix in H2O. The gelatine proteins are like microscopic strands. These long. thin. flexible gelatine proteins tangle up with one another. As the gelatine proteins tangle. they form mesh pockets that trap the H2O. sugar. and other seasoning agents that you’ve added to your sweet.

What happens when you add fruit to your gelatine? Some fruits. like strawberries. oranges. and apples. are a tasty add-on ; the gelatine solidifies around the balls of fruit. But if you add fruits like Ananas comosus. Psidium littorale. Mangifera indica. or kiwi. you end up with a fluid muss that ne’er solidifies. It turns out that this 2nd group of fruits all contain peptidases. like papain and bromelain. Proteases are a particular category of protein that act like a brace of scissors. cutting other proteins up.

First you’ll see for yourself whether one of these protease-containing fruits interferes with gelatine’s ability to solidify. If it does. you’ll test whether it is the peptidase that interferes with solidifying by demobilizing the peptidase in the fruit and so adding the fruit to the gelatine. Proteases. like papain and bromelain. are besides proteins themselves. Most proteins can be inactivated utilizing a assortment of methods. One such method is called denaturation. Denaturation changes the construction. or form. of the protein. without altering what it is made up of. Exposure to heat is one method of denaturing proteins.

Certain fruit such as figs. ginger root. Psidium littorale. Chinese gooseberry. Mangifera indica. papaia. and pineapple contain a works enzyme called bromelain ( type of peptidase ) that breaks down proteins. Bromelain is used in many meat tenderisers for this intent. Gelatine is a protein mesh with at bay pockets of liquid ; the bromelain cuts the protein ironss and keeps the gelatine from seting decently.

Gelatine can non solidify when peptidase enzymes are present.

Fruits with peptidase – such as figs. ginger root. Psidium littorale. Chinese gooseberry. Mangifera indica. papaia. and Ananas comosus. Fruits without peptidase – such as apples. blueberries. oranges. raspberries. and strawberries.

Pineapple belongs to a group of workss called Bromeliads. Kiwi. papaia. and figs are other types of Bromeliads. The enzyme in pineapple juice that is responsible for the dislocation of collagen is bromelin. The procedure of tining pineapple denatures the bromelin. rendering it incapable of catalysing the interruption down of gelatine.

Scientific Method

Investigation Question:

Do certain fruits contain enzymes that prevents gelatine from solidifying?

Purpose:

To find if some fruits contain enzymes that prevent gelatine from solidifying.

Hypothesis:

If different fruits are added to the gelatine. so the gelatine will go on to organize a solid if refrigerated.

Prediction:

As the different fruit are added to the gelatine. the gelatine will go on to solidify as usual.

Variables:

Independent variable:

The type of fruit. incorporating different enzymes. added to the gelatine.

Dependant Variable:

The physical province ( solid ; liquid ; gas ) of the gelatine.

Fixed variables:

Other enzymes contained in fruit.
Temperature of the environment/refrigerator.
pH of H2O used on the experiment.
Mineral salt contained in gelatine.
Sum of gelatine used in each cup.
Sum of H2O used in each cup.
Sum of fruit added to the cups.
Time consequences are recorded.
Type of stuff setup is made from. e. g cups ; spoons ect. Size of the cups.







Apparatus needed:

Clear plastic cups ( 15 )
Permanent marker
Chopped fresh fruit ( 3 cups of each fruit you’d like to prove ) ; take at least one fruit with peptidase and one fruit without peptidase. Knife
Cuting board
Teaspoon
Dry measurement cup
Cold and boiling H2O
Spoons for stirring ( 6 )
Gelatin mix ( adequate to do 18 cups )







Method:

1. Label the 15 cups harmonizing to their contents. Each gelatine status should hold a # 1. a # 2. and a # 3 cup. a. Plain gelatine: Sum of three cups B. Natural Ananas comosus: Sum of six cups – three for the fruit with peptidase and three for the fruit without peptidase c. Cooked Ananas comosus: Sum of six cups – three for the fruit with peptidase and three for the fruit without peptidase 2. Cut up each of the fruits. Be certain to rinse your cutting board and knife after you cut each fruit. 3. Cook 1? cups of each type of fruit. Fruit should be either steamed or boiled for 5 proceedingss. Leave the other 1? cups natural. 4. Add about ? cup of fruit ( cooked or raw ) to each of the plastic cups that are labeled as incorporating fruit. 5. Make the gelatine harmonizing to the bundle instructions. Add 1 cup of gelatine liquid to each of the plastic cups. Using a spoon. exhaustively stir the contents of each cup. Make certain to utilize a different spoon for each status. Refrigerate all of the cups.

Check the consistence of the gelatine in each cup at regular intervals ( one time or twice an hr ) . Record all your observations.

Bibliography

hypertext transfer protocol: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Gelatin
hypertext transfer protocol: //answers. yokel. com/question/index? qid=20081026123044AAvO4SA hypertext transfer protocol: //www. Google. com/imgres? imgurl=http: //regentsprep. org/regents/biology/20
11 % 2520Web % 2520Pages/lockkey. gif & A ; imgrefurl=http: //regentsprep. org/regents/biology/2011 % 2520Web % 2520Pages/Cells- % 2520Cell % 2520Respiration. htm & A ; usg=__ayRxYcNYq1s2-x1I_TUsd9RNOdc= & A ; h=285 & A ; w=400 & A ; sz=5 & A ; hl=en & A ; start=2 & A ; sig2=suhAfZ3so8FytDuGTL7FWw & A ; zoom=1 & A ; tbnid=FIMw2FbwaLsbEM: & A ; tbnh=88 & A ; tbnw=124 & A ; ei=ApiVT93bI4SzhAe-_8WJBA & A ; prev=/search % 3Fq % 3Denzyme % 2Bfunction % 26hl % 3Den % 26client % 3Dsafari % 26sa % 3DG % 26rls % 3Den % 26tbm % 3Disch & A ; itbs=1 hypertext transfer protocol: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Denaturation_ ( biochemistry )

hypertext transfer protocol: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Collagen
hypertext transfer protocol: //www. usc. edu/CSSF/History/2003/Projects/J0411. pdf
hypertext transfer protocol: //homechemistry. blogspot. com/2008/03/breaking-molecular-bonds-jello-and. html hypertext transfer protocol: //www. malignant neoplastic disease. org/Treatment/TreatmentsandSideEffects/ComplementaryandAlternativeMedicine/HerbsVitaminsandMinerals/bromelain hypertext transfer protocol: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Biosynthesis

hypertext transfer protocol: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Protein
hypertext transfer protocol: //raypeat. com/articles/articles/gelatin. shtml