Impact Of Laser Land Leveling On Water Productivity Of Wheat Under Defict Irrigation Conditions Essay

Impact Of Laser Land Leveling On Water Productivity Of Wheat Under Defict Irrigation Conditions

Abstraction

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Two field experiments were carried out during the two turning seasons 2009/2010 and 2010/2011, at the Research Farm of the National Research Centre in Nubarya part, Egypt, to analyze the consequence of both shortage irrigation and optical maser land leveling on salvaging H2O and increasing output of wheat harvest under Egyptian turning conditions. Studied factors were irrigation ( 100 % , 80 % , 60 % and 40 % Irrigation Requirements ) and land leveling techniques ( conventional and optical maser ) . The undermentioned parametric quantities were studied to measure the consequence of shortage irrigation and optical maser land grading ; dirt wet distribution, growing of wheat works, output of wheat harvest, irrigation H2O usage efficiency of wheat harvest ( IWUE ) and economical parametric quantities. Sing the consequence of land grading procedure, it was found that the maximal IWUE of wheat harvest was obtained by utilizing optical maser land grading ; this may be due to betterment of the dirt wet distribution in the root zone. Watering wheat workss at 100 % IR exhibited the highest IWUE ; this may be due to increasing in dirt wet content in the root zone and besides increasing in leaching procedure and taking the salts. Statistical analysis for the consequence of the interaction between land grading and irrigation on IWUE of wheat indicated that the maximal values were detected at adding 100 % IR with utilizing optical maser land grading. However, no important difference was observed between 100 % and 60 % IR, this means that we can salvage 40 % of irrigation H2O by utilizing 60 % IR to water new lands.

Introduction

Deficit irrigation is a manner for maximising H2O usage efficiency, it means obtaining higher outputs per unit of irrigation H2O applied. The harvests are exposed to a certain degree of H2O emphasis either during a peculiar period or throughout the whole growth season. The outlook is that any output decrease will be undistinguished compared with the benefits gained through deviating the saved H2O to water other harvests. ( Kirda, 2000 ) . Traditional methods of land grading are cumbersome, clip consuming, and expensive, so more and more husbandmans are turning to modern methods to level the land. Laser grading is a procedure of smoothing the land surface ( ± 2 centimeter ) from its mean lift utilizing laser-equipped drag pails. This technique is good known for accomplishing higher degrees of truth in land grading and offers great potency for H2O nest eggs and higher grain outputs. ( Jat et al. , 2006 ) . Effective land leveling reduces the work involved with harvest constitution and harvest direction. It increases output, improves uniformity of harvest adulthood and reduces weeds and the sum of H2O needed for land readying. Laser land leveling when applied under assorted harvests and cropping forms has resulted in H2O nest eggs up to 15-30 % ( PACA, 2009 ) . The purpose of the present work is to analyze the consequence of Laser land grading and shortage irrigation degrees for salvaging H2O and increasing output of wheat harvest under Egyptian turning conditions.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The field experiments were carried out during the two winter turning seasons 2009/2010 and 2010/2011, at the Research Farm of the National Research Centre in Nubarya part, Egypt.

a. Properties of dirt and irrigation H2O:

Some physical and chemical analyses of the dirt profile and H2O ( as agencies over the two seasons ) are presented in Tables ( 1 and 2 ) .

Table 1. Some physical and chemical belongingss of dirt at Nubarya ( norm of 2009 and 2010 seasons ) .

Texture

Mechanical analysis

Chemical analysis

Depth

clay + Silt

Fine sand

Course sand

CaCO3

( % )

EC

( dSm-1 )

pH

( 1:2.5 )

OM

( % )

Sandy

2.45

50.70

57.76

7.02

0.35

8.7

0.65

0-20

Sandy

3.72

39.56

56.99

2.34

0.32

8.8

0.40

20-40

Sandy

3.84

59.40

36.78

4.68

0.44

9.3

0.25

40-60

Table 2. Some chemical analysis of irrigation H2O at Nubarya ( norm of 2009 and 2010 seasons ) .

Irrigation H2O

Dirt

Depth

EC ( dSm-1 )

pH

W.P, ( % )

F.C. , ( % )

SP. ( % )

0.41

7.35

4.7

10.1

21.0

0-20

5.6

13.5

19.0

20-40

4.6

12.5

22.0

40-60

B. Description of Sprinklers: Sprinklers were 3/4 ” diameter and discharge was 1.2 m3/ H at 2.5 saloon operating force per unit area and 12 m service radius.

  1. Components of optical maser grading equipment: Laser leveling unit was 4 m breadth and agribusiness tractor was 65 horsepower were used.

d. Experimental design: Experimental design was made as split secret plan with three reproductions. Land grading and shortage irrigation were put in the chief secret plans and bomber chief secret plans, severally and the interventions were irrigation demands ( 100 % , 80 % , 60 % and 40 % IR ) and land grading ( conventional and optical maser ) .

e. Estimation of the entire irrigation H2O ( m3/ fed./ season ) for wheat harvest ( Sakha 93 c.v. ) was calculated utilizing the meteoric information of the Central Laboratory for Agricultural Climate ( CLAC ) harmonizing to Penman-Monteith equation as shown in Fig. ( 1 ) , the seasonal irrigation H2O applied was 2304, 1843, 1382 and 922 m3/ Federal. for

100 % , 80 % , 60 % 40 % IR, severally.

Fig. ( 1 ) . The relation between growing of wheat works and irrigation H2O

demands.

f. Soil wet distribution was determined harmonizing to Liven and Van Rooyen ( 1979 ) . The dirt wet content was measured by profile investigation device, 2 hours straight after irrigation at equal 100 centimeter intervals along 1200 centimeter, the distance between each two sprinklers lines. All the steps were taken at 15 centimeter intervals to a 90 centimeter deepness at each point. Using “ contouring plan Surfer version 8 ” , contouring map for different wet degrees, distances and deepnesss were obtained.

g. IWUE of wheat harvest was calculated harmonizing to James ( 1988 ) as follows: WUE ( kg/m3 ) =Total output ( kg/fed. ) / Entire applied irrigation H2O ( m3/fed./season ) .

h. Leaf country = foliage length x maximal leaf breadth x 0.75 harmonizing to Stickler et Al ( 1961 ) .

I. Statistical analyses were done utilizing the method described by Snedecor and Cochran ( 1982 ) , whereas interventions agencies were compared harmonizing to Duncan ( 1955 ) .

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

  1. Soil wet distribution:

Soil wet distribution in the root zone and wetted dirt volume ( more than or equal 100 % of field capacity ) was measured at the growing period of maximal irrigation demand. Both SMD and WSV improved under optical maser land leveling engineering than conventional land grading at 100 % IR, 80 % IR, 60 % IR, and 40 % IR, severally. This by the consequence of optical maser land leveling on the land surface which creates more unvarying wet distribution in the root zone. This uniformity consequences is more suited status for turning roots and lowest drouth stress.. ( Bold line in contouring maps = field capacity ) every bit shown as from Fig. ( 2 ) to Fig. ( 5 ) .

  1. Laser land grading

  1. Conventional grading

Fig. ( 2 ) . Soil Moisture Distribution at 100 % Irrigation demands.

  1. Laser land grading

  1. Conventional grading

Fig. ( 3 ) . Soil Moisture Distribution at 80 % Irrigation demands.

  1. Laser land grading

  1. Conventional grading

Fig. ( 4 ) . Soil Moisture Distribution at 60 % Irrigation demands.

  1. Laser land grading

  1. Conventional grading

Fig. ( 5 ) . Soil Moisture Distribution at 40 % Irrigation demands.

2. Growth characters of wheat works:

Data presented in Table ( 3 ) show the consequence of land leveling techniques on the growing parametric quantities of wheat workss. It could be observed that the highest values were obtained by utilizing optical maser land leveling engineering this is may be due to betterment in the dirt wet distribution in root zone. Table ( 3 ) shows clearly that irrigation affected significantly all studied wheat growing parametric quantities. It could be safely concluded that watering wheat workss with 2304 m3/ fed./ season ( 100 % IR ) led to the highest values of most growing parametric quantities, so the values decreased by diminishing the shortage irrigation this may be due to increasing dirt wet content in root zone and besides increasing in leaching procedure and taking the salts. Consequence of interaction between irrigation and land grading techniques is shown in tabular array ( 3 ) as an norm of the two turning seasons. The highest values of growing parametric quantities were detected under optical maser land leveling engineering and adding 2304 m3/ fed. / season ( 100 % IR ) . Subjecting wheat workss to H2O emphasis conditions from 100 % to 40 % IR led to decreases of works tallness, entire dry weight of whole works, figure of foliages per mean root, and flag country by 9.14 % , 24.63 % , 22.17 % , and 31.53 % , severally, under optical maser land grading technique. The same tendency was observed under the conventional land leveling status.

Table ( 3 ) : Consequence of irrigation, land grading and their interaction on vegetative

growing parametric quantities of wheat in Nubarya ( norm of two seasons ) .

Plant tallness, centimeter

No. of spikes/m2

Dry weight / works, g

No. of foliages /mean root

Flag leaf country, centimeter­­­2

Land grading techniques

Laser grading

119.17a

489.50

4.81

5.17

25.92

Conventional grading

116.17B

477.67

4.54

4.67

24.00

Irrigation sums, m3/ Federal. / season

2304

121.50a

470.33B

5.23a

5.50a

30.50a

1843

119.33Bachelor of Arts

483.50Bachelor of Arts

4.93Bachelor of Arts

4.83Bachelor of Arts

26.67B

1382

117.83B

495.33a

4.63B

4.50B

21.33degree Celsiuss

922

112.00degree Celsiuss

485.17Bachelor of Arts

3.90degree Celsiuss

4.83Bachelor of Arts

21.33degree Celsiuss

Interaction between land leveling techniques and irrigation

Laser grading

2304

124.00a

480.33Bachelor of Arts

5.40a

6.00a

30.67a

1843

121.33Bachelor of Arts

495.33a

5.10a

5.33Bachelor of Arts

29.33a

1382

118.67B

497.00a

4.67Bachelor of Arts

4.67B

22.67B

922

112.67cadmium

485.33Bachelor of Arts

4.07bc

4.67B

21.00B

Conventional grading

2304

119.00B

460.33Bachelor of Arts

5.07a

5.00Bachelor of Arts

30.33a

1843

117.33bc

471.67Bachelor of Arts

4.77Bachelor of Arts

4.33B

24.00B

1382

117.00bc

493.67a

4.60Bachelor of Arts

4.33B

20.00B

922

111.33vitamin D

485.00Bachelor of Arts

3.73degree Celsiuss

5.00Bachelor of Arts

21.67B

L.S.D. at 5 % degree

4.57

0.79

1.09

4.13

  1. Wheat outputparametric quantities:

The chief end of any development in agribusiness is increasing the outputs of the harvests. Table ( 4 ) shows that the highest important values of wheat output and its properties were achieved by fixing the dirt surface by optical maser technique more than fixing the land by the conventional method. This may be due to betterment in the dirt wet distribution in root zone which creates good conditions for growing of roots. Datas in tabular array ( 4 ) show the relation between wheat output and irrigation.By and large, wheat output was decreased by diminishing sum of irrigation H2O. This may be due to increasing in dirt wet content in root zone and besides increasing in leaching procedure and taking the salts. The of import property ( grain output, ton/fed. ) was lessened when the used irrigation H2O was dropped from 2304 m3/ fed./ season to 922 m3/ fed./ season by 52.79 % . Data shown inFig. ( 6 ) and Table ( 4 )indicated the consequence of the interaction between land leveling techniques and shortage irrigation on the output of wheat harvest. Although, the highest value of grain output was achieved by utilizing optical maser land leveling technique under 100 % IR ( 2304 m3/ fed./ season ) but the statistical analysis indicated that no important respect was achieved between 100 % and 60 % IR, in the grain output, this means salvaging 40 % from irrigation H2O.

Fig. ( 6 ) . Consequence of land gradingtechniques and shortage irrigationon the output of

wheat.

  1. Irrigation H2O usage efficiency of wheat harvest:

Response of wheat IWUE to the interaction between studied H2O governments and the two land grading technique was recorded in Table ( 4 ) . The highest IWUE ( 1.98 kg/ m3) was obtained by utilizing 1382 m3/ fed./ season ( 60 % IR ) H2O government under optical maser dirt grading technique. From the point of view of H2O preservation, it is observed that utilizing of 2304 m3/ fed./ season ( 100 % IR ) is non efficient to water wheat harvest. Therefore, the efficient H2O government is 60 % IR under optical maser dirt grading technique, because there was no important differences of grain output of wheat harvest between utilizing of 60 % , 8.0 % and 100 % IR. Consequently, 40 % of the irrigation H2O could be saved for watering other harvests.

Table ( 4 ) : Consequence of irrigation, land grading and their interaction on output

parametric quantities and Nubarya ( norm of two seasons ) .

Biological output, ( ton/fed. )

Straw output, ( ton/fed. )

Grain output, ( ton/fed. )

IWUE,

( kg/ m3)

Land grading techniques

Laser grading

8.74 a

6.23 a

2.51 a

1.61 a

Conventional grading

7.34 B

5.27 B

2.08 B

1.31 B

Deficit irrigation, m3/fed./season

2304

8.23

5.37 B

2.87 a

1.25 degree Celsiuss

1843

8.28

5.68 Bachelor of Arts

2.60 B

1.41 B

1382

8.03

5.68 Bachelor of Arts

2.35 degree Celsiuss

1.70 a

922

7.62

6.27 a

1.35 vitamin D

1.47 B

Interaction between land leveling techniques and shortage irrigation

Laser grading

2304

8.83Bachelor of Arts

5.80rudiment

3.03a

1.32 cadmium

1843

8.97Bachelor of Arts

6.20Bachelor of Arts

2.77Bachelor of Arts

1.50 bc

1382

9.17a

6.43a

2.73Bachelor of Arts

1.98 a

922

8.00bc

6.50a

1.50vitamin D

1.63 B

Conventional grading

2304

7.63cadmium

4.93degree Celsiuss

2.70Bachelor of Arts

1.17 vitamin D

1843

7.60cadmium

5.17bc

2.43B

1.32 cadmium

1382

6.90vitamin D

4.93degree Celsiuss

1.97degree Celsiuss

1.42 bcd

922

7.23cadmium

6.03Bachelor of Arts

1.20vitamin D

1.3 cadmium

L.S.D. at 5 % degree

1.00

0.98

0.35

0.23

  1. Economic Analysis:

Method for computation net income as shown in tabular array ( 5 ) and values of entire costs of inputs, entire income of end products and net income were presented harmonizing toRizk ( 2007 ) .

Table ( 5 ) : Method of ciphering the net income for the studied experimental

factors in wheat works.

Items

Land Leveling Techniques

All interventions

Deficit Irrigation

List of inputs

Cost of Irrigation, E/fed.

100 % IR

80 % IR

60 % IR

40 % IR

600

480

360

240

Cost of land readying, LE/fed.

150 and 300 with optical maser Leveling

Cost of seeds, LE/fed.

230

Cost of mineral fertilisers, LE/fed.

1100

Cost of compost, LE/fed

1500

Cost of bio-fertilizers LE/fed

50

Cost of weed control, LE/fed.

200

Cost of plague control, LE/fed.

150

Cost of reaping, LE/fed.

150

Cost of labour, LE/fed.

600

Rent ( on season ) , LE/fed.

2000

Entire costs, LE/fed.

End product

Output, ton/fed. ( Grain yield + Straw output )

YttriumN= ( Yg +Ys )

Monetary value, LE/ ton. Yg = 350 * 6.66 ardb = 2331, Ys = 600

Entire income, LE/fed.

YttriumN* ( 2331 + 600 )

Net income = list of end products – list of inputs

YttriumN*2931 – T.C.I.

YttriumN= Y is yield and n= figure of intervention ( from 1 to 8 intervention ) , T.C.I.= Total Costs for Inputs The monetary values harmonizing to 2010/2011 where 1 $ = 5.85L.E

The information plotted in Fig. ( 7 ) and Table ( 6 ) show the consequence of land leveling techniques and irrigation interventions on the entire costs and the entire income every bit good as the net income ( LE/ fed. ) . The economical analysis of the production of wheat harvest under the experiment conditions explained that the entire costs of wheat production inputs increased by increasing of irrigation H2O from 40 % to 100 % IR under the two experimental land leveling techniques. Otherwise, the highest values of the net income were acquired by utilizing of 100 % , 80 % , and 60 % IR under optical maser land grading technique and there were no important differences between the three values, because these three interventions produced the highest values of grain output. By and large, the more efficient and the economical intervention was 60 % IR ( 1382 m3/ fed./ season ) under optical maser land grading.

Table ( 6 ) Consequence of experimental interventions on the entire costs for Inputs, entire

income for end products, and net income.

Entire costs for Inputs, LE/fed

Entire income for end products, LE/fed

Net income, LE/fed.

Laser grading

2304

6880 a

10550.6 a

3670.67 a

1843

6760 B

10169.3 Bachelor of Arts

3409.33 Bachelor of Arts

1382

6640 vitamin D

10231.3 Bachelor of Arts

3591.33 a

922

6520 degree Fahrenheit

7396.6 vitamin D

876.67 District of Columbia

Conventional grading

2304

6730 degree Celsius

9254.0 bc

2524.00 bc

1843

6610 vitamin E

8772.3 degree Celsiuss

2162.33 degree Celsiuss

1382

6490 g

7544.3 vitamin D

1054.33 vitamin D

922

6370 H

6417.0 vitamin E

47.00 vitamin E

Fig. ( 7 ) Consequence of land gradingtechniques and shortage irrigationon the net income.

Mentions

Duncan, D.B. ( 1955 ) .Multiple scope and multiple F trials. Biometricss, 11:1 – 42.

Jat, M.L. , Parvesh Chandna, Raj Gupta, S.K. Sharma and M.A. Gill. ( 2006 ). Laser Land Leveling: A Precursor Technology for Resource Conservation. Rice-Wheat Consortium Technical Bulletin Series 7. New Delhi: Rice-Wheat Consortium for the Indo-Gangetic Plains.

Kirda, C. ( 2000 ) .Deficit irrigation scheduling based on works growing phases demoing H2O emphasis tolerance. Cukuroya University, Adana, Turkey, 300 pp. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.fao.org/documents/en/detail/68067 )

Liven, P. C. and Van Rooyen, F. C. ( 1979 ) .The consequence of discharge rate and intermittent H2O application by point-source irrigation on the dirt wet distribution form. Soil Sci.Amer. J. 43:8-15.

PACA, 2009. 1st Floor, NASC Complex, DPS Marg, Pusa,New Delhi– 110 012India. Web site:www.conserveagri.org

Rizk, E. K. ( 2007 ) .Irrigation programming and environmental emphasis coefficient of kidney bean under some irrigation systems in North Sinai. Egypt. J. of Appl. Sci. , 22 ( 11 ) 286-296.

Snedecor, G.W. and Cochran, W.G. ( 1982 ) .“ Statistical methods ” . 7Thursdayed. , Iowa State Univ. Press, Iowa, U.S.A. , 511 pp.

Stickler, F.C. , Weaden and Pauli, A.W. ( 1961 ). Leaf country finding in grain sorghum. Agron. J.53 ( 3 ) , 187 – 188.

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