Motivation is the word derived from the word ’motive’ which means demands. desires. wants or thrusts within the persons. It is the procedure of exciting people to actions to carry through the ends. In the work end context the psychological factors exciting the people’s behavior can be – * desire for money * success * acknowledgment * job-satisfaction * squad work. etc| One of the most of import maps of direction is to make willingness amongst the employees to execute in the best of their abilities. Therefore the function of a leader is to elicit involvement in public presentation of employees in their occupations. The procedure of motive consists of three phases: –
1. A felt demand or drive 2. A stimulation in which demands have to be aroused 3. When demands are satisfied. the satisfaction or achievement of ends. Therefore. we can state that motive is a psychological phenomenon which means demands and wants of the persons have to be tackled by bordering an inducement program.
THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS
Abraham Maslow is good renowned for suggesting the Hierarchy of Needs Theory in 1943. This theory is a classical word picture of human motive. This theory is based on the premise that there is a hierarchy of five demands within each person. The urgency of these demands varies. These five demands are as follows- 1. Physiological needs- These are the basic demands of air. H2O. nutrient. vesture and shelter. In other words. physiological demands are the demands for basic comfortss of life. 2. Safety needs- Safety demands include physical. environmental and emotional safety and protection. For instance- Job security. fiscal security. protection from animate beings. household security. wellness security. etc. 3. Social needs- Social demands include the demand for love. fondness. attention. belongingness. and friendly relationship.
4. Respect needs- Esteem demands are of two types: internal regard demands ( self- regard. assurance. competency. accomplishment and freedom ) and external regard demands ( acknowledgment. power. position. attending and esteem ) . 5. Self-actualization need- This include the impulse to go what you are capable of going / what you have the potency to go. It includes the demand for growing and self-contentment. It besides includes desire for deriving more cognition. social- service. creativeness and being aesthetic. The self- realization demands are ne’er to the full satisfiable. As an single grows psychologically. chances keep cropping up to go on turning.
Harmonizing to Maslow. persons are motivated by unsated demands. As each of these demands is significantly satisfied. it drives and forces the following demand to emerge. Maslow grouped the five demands into two classs – Higher-order demands and Lower-order demands. The physiological and the safety needs constituted the lower-order demands. These lower-order demands are chiefly satisfied externally. The societal. regard. and self-actualization demands constituted the higher-order demands. These higher-order demands are by and large satisfied internally. i. e. . within an single. Therefore. we can reason that during roar period. the employees lower-order demands are significantly met. Deductions of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory for Managers | As far as the physiological demands are concerned. the directors should give employees appropriate wages to buy the basic necessities of life. Breaks and eating chances should be given to employees.
| | As far as the safety demands are concerned. the directors should supply the employees occupation security. safe and hygienic work environment. and retirement benefits so as to retain them. | | As far as societal demands are concerned. the direction should promote teamwork and form societal events. | | As far as esteem demands are concerned. the directors can appreciate and honor employees on carry throughing and transcending their marks. The direction can give the deserved employee higher occupation rank / place in the organisation. | | As far as self-actualization demands are concerned. the directors can give the employees disputing occupations in which the employees’ accomplishments and competences are to the full utilised. Furthermore. growing chances can be given to them so that they can make the extremum. | The directors must place the demand degree at which the employee is bing and so those demands can be utilized as push for motive.
Restrictions of Maslow’s Theory
* It is indispensable to observe that non all employees are governed by same set of demands. Different persons may be driven by different demands at same point of clip. It is ever the most powerful unsated demand that motivates an person.
* The theory is non through empirical observation supported.
* The theory is non applicable in instance of hungering creative person as even if the artist’s basic demands are non satisfied. he will still endeavor for acknowledgment and accomplishment.
HERZBERG’S 2 FACTOR THEORY
In 1959. Frederick Herzberg. a behavioral scientist proposed a two-factor theory or the motivator-hygiene theory. Harmonizing to Herzberg. there are some occupation factors that result in satisfaction while there are other occupation factors that prevent dissatisfaction. Harmonizing to Herzberg. the antonym of “Satisfaction” is “No satisfaction” and the antonym of “Dissatisfaction” is “No Dissatisfaction” .
Herzberg classified these occupation factors into two categories-
a. Hygiene factors- Hygiene factors are those occupation factors which are indispensable for being of motive at workplace. These do non take to positive satisfaction for long-run. But if these factors are absent / if these factors are non-existant at workplace. so they lead to dissatisfaction. In other words. hygiene factors are those factors which when equal / sensible in a occupation. lenify the employees and do non do them dissatisfied. These factors are extrinsic to work. Hygiene factors are besides called as dissatisfiers or care factors as they are required to avoid dissatisfaction. These factors describe the occupation environment / scenario. The hygiene factors symbolized the physiological demands which the persons wanted and expected to be fulfilled. Hygiene factors include: * Pay- The wage or salary construction should be appropriate and sensible. It must be equal and competitory to those in the same industry in the same sphere.
* Company Policies and administrative policies- The company policies should non be excessively stiff. They should be just and clear. It should include flexible on the job hours. frock codification. interruptions. holiday. etc. * Fringe benefits- The employees should be offered wellness attention programs ( mediclaim ) . benefits for the household members. employee aid programmes. etc. * Physical Working conditions- The on the job conditions should be safe. clean and hygienic. The work equipments should be updated and well-maintained. * Status- The employees’ position within the organisation should be familiar and retained. * Interpersonal relations-The relationship of the employees with his equals. higher-ups and subsidiaries should be appropriate and acceptable. There should be no struggle or humiliation element nowadays.
* Job Security- The organisation must supply occupation security to the employees. b. Motivational factors- Harmonizing to Herzberg. the hygiene factors can non be regarded as incentives. The motivational factors yield positive satisfaction. These factors are built-in to work. These factors motivate the employees for a superior public presentation. These factors are called satisfiers. These are factors involved in executing the occupation. Employees find these factors per se honoring. The incentives symbolized the psychological demands that were perceived as an extra benefit. Motivational factors include: * Recognition- The employees should be praised and recognized for their achievements by the directors.
* Sense of achievement- The employees must hold a sense of accomplishment. This depends on the occupation. There must be a fruit of some kind in the occupation. * Growth and promotional opportunities- There must be growing and promotion chances in an organisation to actuate the employees to execute good. * Responsibility- The employees must keep themselves responsible for the work. The directors should give them ownership of the work. They should minimise control but retain answerability. * Meaningfulness of the work- The work itself should be meaningful. interesting and disputing for the employee to execute and to acquire motivated.
| | Limitations of Two-Factor Theory
The two factor theory is non free from restrictions:
1. The two-factor theory overlooks situational variables. 2. Herzberg assumed a correlativity between satisfaction and productiveness. But the research conducted by Herzberg stressed upon satisfaction and ignored productiveness. 3. The theory’s dependability is unsure. Analysis has to be made by the raters. The raters may botch the findings by analysing same response in different mode. 4. No comprehensive step of satisfaction was used. An employee may happen his occupation acceptable despite the fact that he may hate/object portion of his occupation. 5. The two factor theory is non free from prejudice as it is based on the natural reaction of employees when they are enquired the beginnings of satisfaction and dissatisfaction at work. They will fault dissatisfaction on the external factors such as salary construction. company policies and equal relationship. Besides. the employees will give recognition to themselves for the satisfaction factor at work. 6. The theory ignores blue-collar workers. Despite these restrictions. Herzberg’s Two-Factor theory is acceptable loosely.
Deductions of Two-Factor Theory
| The Two-Factor theory implies that the directors must emphasize upon vouching the adequateness of the hygiene factors to avoid employee dissatisfaction. Besides. the directors must do certain that the work is exciting and honoring so that the employees are motivated to work and execute harder and better. This theory stress upon job-enrichment so as to actuate the employees. The occupation must use the employee’s accomplishments and competences to the upper limit. Concentrating on the motivational factors can better work-quality. |
McGREGOR’S THEORY X & A ; Y
In 1960. Douglas McGregor formulated Theory X and Theory Y proposing two facets of human behavior at work. or in other words. two different positions of persons ( employees ) : one of which is negative. called as Theory X and the other is positive. so called as Theory Y. Harmonizing to McGregor. the perceptual experience of directors on the nature of persons is based on assorted premises. Premises of Theory X * An mean employee per se does non similar work and attempts to get away it whenever possible. * Since the employee does non desire to work. he must be persuaded. compelled. or warned with penalty so as to accomplish organisational ends. A close supervising is required on portion of directors. The directors adopt a more dictatorial manner. * Many employees rank occupation security on top. and they have small or no aspiration/ aspiration. * Employees by and large dislike duties. * Employees resist alteration. * An mean employee needs formal way. | Premises of Theory Y
* Employees can comprehend their occupation as relaxing and normal. They exercise their physical and mental attempts in an built-in mode in their occupations. * Employees may non necessitate merely menace. external control and coercion to work. but they can utilize self-direction and self-control if they are dedicated and sincere to accomplish the organisational aims. * If the occupation is honoring and fulfilling. so it will ensue in employees’ trueness and committedness to organisation. * An mean employee can larn to acknowledge and acknowledge the duty. In fact. he can even larn to obtain duty. * The employees have accomplishments and capablenesss. Their logical capablenesss should be to the full utilised. In other words. the creativeness. resourcefulness and advanced potency of the employees can be utilized to work out organisational jobs.
Therefore. we can state that Theory X presents a pessimistic position of employees’ nature and behavior at work. while Theory Y presents an optimistic position of the employees’ nature and behavior at work. If correlative it with Maslow’s theory. we can state that Theory X is based on the premise that the employees emphasize on the physiological demands and the safety needs ; while Theory X is based on the premise that the societal demands. respect demands and the self-actualization needs rule the employees. McGregor views Theory Y to be more valid and sensible than Theory X. Therefore. he encouraged affable squad dealingss. responsible and stimulating occupations. and engagement of all in decision-making procedure.
Deductions of Theory X and Theory Y
| Quite a few organisations use Theory X today. Theory X encourages usage of tight control and supervising. It implies that employees are loath to organisational alterations. Therefore. it does non promote invention. | | Many organisations are utilizing Theory Y techniques. Theory Y implies that the directors should make and promote a work environment which provides chances to employees to take inaugural and autonomy. Employees should be given chances to lend to organisational wellbeing. Theory Y encourages decentalisation of authorization. teamwork and participative determination devising in an organisation. Theory Y hunts and discovers the ways in which an employee can do important parts in an organisation. It harmonizes and lucifers employees’ demands and aspirations with organisational demands and aspirations. |
MOTIVATION INCENTIVES – INCENTIVES TO MOTIVATE EMPLOYEES
Incentive is an act or promise for greater action. It is besides called as a stimulation to greater action. Incentives are something which are given in add-on to bets. It means extra wage or benefit to an employee in acknowledgment of accomplishment or better work. Incentives provide a goad or ardor in the employees for better public presentation. It is a natural thing that cipher acts without a intent behind. Therefore. a hope for a wages is a powerful inducement to actuate employees. Besides pecuniary inducement. there are some other stimulations which can drive a individual to better. This will include occupation satisfaction. occupation security. occupation publicity. and pride for achievement. Therefore. inducements truly can sometimes work to carry through the ends of a concern. The demand of inducements can be many: –
1. To increase productiveness.
2. To drive or elicit a stimulus work.
3. To heighten committedness in work public presentation.
4. To psychologically fulfill a individual which leads to occupation satisfaction.
5. To determine the behaviour or mentality of low-level towards work.
6. To instill ardor and enthusiasm towards work.
7. To acquire the upper limit of their capablenesss so that they are exploited and utilized maximally. Therefore. direction has to offer the undermentioned two classs of inducements to actuate employees: – 1. Monetary incentives- Those inducements which satisfy the subsidiaries by supplying them wagess in footings of rupees. Money has been recognized as a main beginning of fulfilling the demands of people. Money is besides helpful to fulfill the societal demands by possessing assorted material points. Therefore. money non merely satisfies psychological demands but besides the security and societal demands. Therefore. in many mills. assorted pay programs and fillip strategies are introduced to actuate and excite the people to work. 2. Non-monetary incentives- Besides the pecuniary inducements. there are certain non-financial inducements which can fulfill the self-importance and self- realization demands of employees. The inducements which can non be measured in footings of money are under the class of “Non- pecuniary incentives” .
Whenever a director has to fulfill the psychological demands of the subsidiaries. he makes usage of non-financial inducements. Non- fiscal inducements can be of the undermentioned types: – a. Security of service- Job security is an inducement which provides great motive to employees. If his occupation is secured. he will set maximal attempts to accomplish the aims of the endeavor. This besides helps since he is really far off from mental tenseness and he can give his best to the endeavor. B. Praise or recognition- The congratulations or acknowledgment is another non- fiscal inducement which satisfies the self-importance demands of the employees. Sometimes praise becomes more effectual than any other inducement. The employees will react more to praise and seek to give the best of their abilities to a concern. c. Suggestion scheme- The organisation should look frontward to taking suggestions and ask foring suggestion strategies from the subsidiaries. This inculcates a spirit of engagement in the employees.
This can be done by printing assorted articles written by employees to better the work environment which can be published in assorted magazines of the company. This besides is helpful to actuate the employees to experience of import and they can besides be in hunt for advanced methods which can be applied for better work methods. This finally helps in turning a concern and accommodating new methods of operations. d. Job enrichment- Job enrichment is another non- pecuniary inducement in which the occupation of a worker can be enriched. This can be done by increasing his duties. giving him an of import appellation. increasing the content and nature of the work. This manner efficient worker can acquire disputing occupations in which they can turn out their worth. This besides helps in the greatest motive of the efficient employees. e. Promotion opportunities- Promotion is an effectual tool to increase the spirit to work in a concern. If the employees are provided chances for the promotion and growing. they feel satisfied and contented and they become more committed to the organisation.
The above non- fiscal tools can be framed efficaciously by giving due concentration to the function of employees. A combination of fiscal and non- fiscal inducements help together in conveying motive and ardor to work in a concern. Positive IncentivesPositive inducements are those inducements which provide a positive confidence for carry throughing the demands and wants. Positive inducements by and large have an optimistic attitude behind and they are by and large given to fulfill the psychological demands of employees. For example-promotion. congratulations. acknowledgment. fringe benefits and allowances. etc. It is positive by nature. Negative IncentivesNegative inducements are those whose intent is to rectify the errors or defaults of employees. The intent is to rectify errors in order to acquire effectual consequences. Negative inducement is by and large resorted to when positive inducement does non works and a psychological set back has to be given to employees. It is negative by nature. For example- demotion. transportation. mulcts. punishments. |
THE IMPORTANCE OF MOTIVATION
Motivation is a really of import for an organisation because of the following benefits it provides: – 1. Puts human resources into action
Every concern requires physical. fiscal and human resources to carry through the ends. It is through motive that the human resources can be utilized by doing full usage of it. This can be done by constructing willingness in employees to work. This will assist the endeavor in procuring best possible use of resources. 2. Improves degree of efficiency of employees
The degree of a subsidiary or a employee does non merely depend upon his makings and abilities. For acquiring best of his work public presentation. the spread between ability and willingness has to be filled which helps in bettering the degree of public presentation of subsidiaries. This will ensue into- a. Addition in productiveness.
B. Reducing cost of operations. and
c. Bettering overall efficiency.
3. Leads to achievement of organisational ends
The ends of an endeavor can be achieved merely when the undermentioned factors take topographic point: –
d. There is best possible use of resources.
e. There is a co-operative work environment.
f. The employees are purposive and they act in a purposive mode. g. Goals can be achieved if co-ordination and co-operation takes topographic point at the same time which can be efficaciously done through motive.
4. Physiques friendly relationship
Motivation is an of import factor which brings employees satisfaction. This can be done by maintaining into head and bordering an inducement program for the benefit of the employees. This could originate the undermentioned things: h. Monetary and non-monetary inducements.
I. Promotion chances for employees.
j. Disincentives for inefficient employees.
In order to construct a affable. friendly atmosphere in a concern. the above stairss should be taken by a director. This would assist in: a. Effective co-operation which brings stableness.
B. Industrial difference and unrest in employees will cut down. c. The employees will be adaptable to the alterations and there will be no opposition to the alteration. d. This will assist in supplying a smooth and sound concern in which single involvements will co-occur with the organisational involvements. e. This will ensue in net income maximization through increased productiveness.
1. Leads to stableness of work force
Stability of work force is really of import from the point of position of repute and good will of a concern. The employees can stay loyal to the endeavor merely when they have a feeling of engagement in the direction. The accomplishments and efficiency of employees will ever be of advantage to employees every bit good as employees. This will take to a good public image in the market which will pull competent and qualified people into a concern. As it is said. “Old is gold” which suffices with the function of motive here. the older the people. more the experience and their accommodation into a concern which can be of benefit to the endeavor.
From the above treatment. we can state that motive is an internal feeling which can be understood merely by director since he is in close contact with the employees. Needs. wants and desires are inter-related and they are the driving force to move. These demands can be understood by the director and he can border motive programs consequently. We can state that motive hence is a uninterrupted procedure since motive procedure is based on demands which are limitless. The procedure has to be continued throughout. We can sum up by stating that motive is of import both to an person and a concern. Motivation is of import to an single as:
1. Motivation will assist him accomplish his personal ends.
2. If an person is motivated. he will hold occupation satisfaction.
3. Motivation will assist in self-development of single.
4. An person would ever derive by working with a dynamic squad. Similarly. motive is of import to a concern as:
1. The more motivated the employees are. the more empowered the squad is. 2. The more is the squad work and single employee part. more profitable and successful is the concern. 3. During period of amendments. there will be more adaptability and creativeness. 4. Motivation will take to an optimistic and ambitious attitude at work topographic point.
Staff Motivation – Motivation Tips for Employees
Employees are the edifice blocks of an organisation. Organizational success depends on the corporate attempts of the employees. The employees will jointly lend to organisational growing when they are motivated. Below mentioned are some tips for actuating the staff / employees in an organisation:
Evaluate yourself- In order to actuate. promote and command your staff’s behavior. it is indispensable to understand. promote and command your ain behavior as a director. Work upon using your strengths and chances to neutralize and lower the negative impact of your failings and organisational menaces. The director should follow the attack “You’re OK – I’m OK” .
Be familiar with your staff- The director should be good acquainted with his staff. The more and the better he knows his staff. the simpler it is to acquire them involved in the occupation every bit good as in accomplishing the squad and organisational ends. This will besides ask for staff’s committedness and trueness. A affable superior-subordinate relationship is a cardinal factor in job-satisfaction.
Supply the employees certain benefits- Give your staff some fiscal and other benefits. Give them fillips. pay them for overtime. and give them wellness and household insurance benefits. Make certain they get interruptions from work. Let them bask holidaies and vacations.
Participate in new employees induction programme- Induction returns with recruitment advertisement. At this point of clip. the possible entrants start making their ain feelings and desires about the occupation and the organisation. The mode in which the choice is conducted and the attendant enlisting procedure will either construct or damage the feeling about the occupation and organisation. Therefore. the director must hold a say in bordering the advertizement and besides in the choice and enlisting procedure. After the determination about the campaigner is made. the director must take personal involvement in the selected joinee’s fall ining day of the month. the household resettlement issues. cost of remotion. etc. Bing observed by the new recruit and your full squad / staff to be involved wholly. will guarantee a persuasive entry in the organisation.
Provide feedback to the staff constantly- The staff members are acute to cognize how they are executing. Try giving a regular and constructive feedback to your staff. This will be more acceptable by the staff. Do non establish the feedback on premises. but on facts and personal observations. Do non indulge in favoritism or comparing the employee with some one else. Sit with your staff on day-to-day or hebdomadal footing and do certain that feedback happens. This will assist in hiking employee’s morale and will therefore actuate the staff.
Acknowledge your staff on their achievements- A rap on the dorsum. some words of congratulations. and giving a note of recognition to the employee / staff member at personal degree with some signifier of wide promotion can actuate the staff a batch. Make it a point to advert the staff’s outstanding accomplishments in official newssheets or organization’s diary. Not merely acknowledge the employee with highest part. but besides acknowledge the employee who meets and over exceeds the marks.
Ensure effectual clip management- Having control over clip ensures that things are done in right mode. Motivate your staff to hold “closed” times. i. e. . few hours when there are no breaks for the staff in executing their occupation function so that they can concentrate on the occupation. and “open” times when the staff freely communicate and interact. Plan one to one Sessionss of interaction with your staff where they can inquire their questions and besides can acquire your attending and. thereby. they will non experience neglected. This all will work in long tally to actuate the staff.
Have emphasis direction techniques in your organization- Create an environment in which you and your staff can work within optimal force per unit area degrees. Guarantee an optimistic attitude towards emphasis in the workplace. Have developing Sessionss on emphasis direction. and guarantee a follow-up with group meetings on the mode emphasis can be lowered at work. Give your staff liberty in work. Identify the emphasis symptoms in employees and seek to cover with them.
Smile often- Smiling can hold a enormous consequence on hiking the morale of the staff. A smiling superior creates an optimistic and motivative work environment. Smiling is an indispensable constituent of the organic structure linguistic communication of assurance. credence and daring. Smile systematically. of course and frequently. to show that you feel good and positive about the staff who works for you. It encourages new thoughts and feedback from the staff. The staff does non experience hesitating and threatened to discourse their positions this manner.
Listen effectively- Listening attentively is a signifier of acknowledging and appreciating the individual who is speaking. Reciprocal / Mutual hearing develops affable and healthy personal relationships on which the employee / staff development remainders. If the directors do non listen attentively to the subsidiaries. the morale of the subsidiaries lowers down and they do non experience like sharing their thoughts or giving their positions. Effective hearing by the director boosts up the employees’ morale and therefore motivates them.
Ensure effectual communication- In order to actuate your staff. indulge in effectual communicating such as avoid utilizing anger looks. use oppugning techniques to cognize staff’s mentality and analysis instead than telling the staff what to make. establish your opinions on facts and non on premises. usage relaxed and steady tone of voice. listen efficaciously and be positive and helpful in your responses. Share your positions with the staff.
Develop and promote creativity- The staff should be encouraged to develop the creativeness skills so as to work out organisational jobs. Give them clip and resources for developing creativeness. Let them keep changeless brainstorming Sessionss. Invite thoughts and suggestions from the staff. They may turn out to be really productive.
Don’t be stiff. Be flexible- Introduce flexibleness in work. Let for flexible working hours if possible. Let the employees work at place on occasion if need arises. Make non be stiff in accepting thoughts from your staff. Stimulate flexible attitudes in the employees who are accountable to you by inquiring what changes they would wish to convey about if given a opportunity.
Adopt occupation enrichment- Job enrichment implies giving room for a better quality of working life. It means easing people to accomplish self-development. celebrity and success through a more ambitious and interesting occupation which provides more promotional and advancement chances. Give employees more freedom in occupation. affect them in decision-making procedure. demo them trueness and observe their accomplishments
Respect your team- Respect non merely the employees’ rights to portion and show their positions. and to be themselves. but their clip excessively. This will guarantee that the employees respect you and your clip. Make the staff feel that they are respected non merely as employees / workers but as persons excessively.