The instruction system in Brunei Darussalam has been reformed to carry through the Ministry of Education ‘s mission and vision in supplying pupils with profitable cognition, linguistic communication proficiencies and multi talented accomplishments. Teachers are expected to replace the construct of rote acquisition and boring methods with improved instruction methods and larning environment so that pupils, instead than being informingly absorbent, will be able to retain the lesson longer. Besides, the Ministry of Education is besides taking to raise the figure of pupils inscribing into higher establishments along with a better criterion in accomplishment from all four compulsory topics ; Bahasa Melayu, English Language, Mathematics and Science ( Ministry Of Education, 2008 ) .
With these principles, the Ministry of Education has officially begun the interim phase of ‘Sistem Pendidikan Negara Abad ke-21 ‘ ( SPN 21 ) or ‘The National Education System for the twenty-first Century ‘ in the twelvemonth 2008 for the new pupils inscribing in Year 7. Changes were made in phases and both educational construction[ 1 ]and the course of study was besides affected. The course of study under the SPN21 now promotes assortment of learning patterns and larning in category. Harmonizing to the Ministry of Education, pupils should be equipped with the twenty-first century accomplishments ( Ministry Of Education, 2008 ) . This contributes to one of the major encouragement in implementing the usage of engineerings in a lesson.
ICT in Brunei
Many attempts have been made to stress the integrating of engineerings in learning pattern and acquisition in a schoolroom. Billions of dollars have been funded to schools to guarantee that the usage of engineering is being implemented in Bruneian schools. Computers, Smart Boards, Graphic Calculators and even wireless cyberspace are few illustrations of what have been provided and to the full subsidized by the Brunei Government to each school.
A farther major measure has been made to speed up this intent. As of February 2011, the Ministry of Education has launched e-Hijrah and planned a six twelvemonth scheme to to the full transform the instruction manner in Brunei Darussalam. This six old ages plan includes stakeholders and instructors ‘ workshop and preparation to “ develop practical and hands-on accomplishments and attacks to developing an ICT ( Information and Communications Technology ) mentality and civilization ” ( Ministry Of Education, 2011, parity. 3 ) .
E-Hijrah, an Arabic word that means ‘moving frontward ‘ , expects to back up the state ‘s aspiration ‘Wawasan 2035 ‘ whereby “ citizens must possess a broad array of ICT accomplishments and be effectual users of ICT within all aspects of their lives ” ( Ministry Of Education, 2011, parity. 1 ) . To accomplish this, instructors, who are function theoretical accounts to their pupils should wholly be computing machine literate and be able to incorporate the usage of ICT in their lesson as urged by the Ministry of Education ( 2011 ) in the e-Hijrah web site, “ To maximise the impact of ICT in instruction requires altering mentalities about instruction, including the function of instructors, the manner we design and implement course of study, and the procedures by which we manage schools and administer national instruction ” ( parity. 2 ) .
Harmonizing to Elliot ( 2005 ) , to make an impact on the pupils, instructors are accountable in planing a lesson that should practically affect pupils ‘ larning experience. The experiences gain in a lesson should be cognitively active and suits the aims of the course of study. The design of the lesson is such that instructors plan the lesson collaboratively and modify it after each rhythm through equal observation. The ongoing procedure is called ‘Learning Study ‘ . Elliot ( 2005 ) further adds in his article that Learning Study is about researching new sorts of pedagogical ends and should concentrate more on larning instead than learning.
Learning Study in Brunei has become portion of the course of study assigned by the Ministry of Education to be carried out by instructors in the secondary schools. The procedure is rather similar to that being described as earlier. A peculiar sub-topic is chosen by a group of instructors. Research lesson which includes be aftering the lesson and its content is designed by these instructors. For the first rhythm, one of them will learn in his or her several category. Colleagues who are involved in this Learning Study will detect the lesson. Pre-test is given to pupils before the existent lesson is carried out and station meeting will be held every bit shortly as the station trial is administered. The treatment among the instructors in the station meeting will later on decide whether the research lesson should be modified or non. If the consequence is still unsatisfactory, so the procedure will hold to be repeated for the 2nd rhythm but with a different instructor and a different set of pupils ( see Figure 1 ) .
Design Teaching Plan
Evaluation and Alteration
Implementing Research lesson
Figure 1. The Learning Study rhythm in Brunei
Overview of Cycle One and Two
Two rhythms for the subject ‘Conversion of Travel Graphs ‘ were carried out in the twelvemonth 2011. All phases were followed in order as shown in Figure 1 above. The first activity was designed following the learning schemes by Ai Ling ( 2010 ) on Conversion of Travel Graphs. She posted the picture on transition of speed-time graph to distance-time graph in her web log singaporeolevelmaths.com. Appendix A shows all three pages of this first activity. Meanwhile, the 2nd activity was designed as an application of their conceptual apprehension from the first activity into an existent graph ( mention to Appendix B ) . This activity looked further into using their old lesson on ‘Area under the Graph ‘ to cipher the distance covered by the object while the first focused on happening chiefly the gradient of the curves.
In Cycle One, 19 Year 9 pupils who are in the Science watercourse[ 2 ]were involved. During the observation made in Cycle One, it was found that pupils had trouble in detecting the alterations of their gradient consequences for the last three graphs, labelled as Graph C, D and E, as they had no other gradient to compare with. These were so modified utilizing similar stairss used in Graph A and B as shown in Appendix C. More sub-questions were added to the last inquiry in the 2nd activity. This is because pupils had failed to compose down the distance covered for the object ‘s journey on the y-axis. Therefore, to do certain that pupils were guided into this, inquiries on computation of distance travelled at each specific clip interval were added as shown in Appendix D.
In Cycle Two, two Year 9 categories with different abilities were involved: 12 pupils from the express[ 3 ]category and 14 from the low winners attended the lesson and Saturday for both pre-test and post-test. Two lessons were used to carry on the research lesson to the express category whereas four lessons were carried out for the low winners category. It was found during observation of the lesson, after alteration, that the activities were easy understood by the low winners. Even more, the express pupils were able to hold on the construct rapidly than the scientific discipline pupils. This showed that the alteration of the lesson in Cycle Two was more effectual in heightening the pupils ‘ apprehension on the basic construct of Conversion of Travel Graphs.
Despite the differences in the pupils ‘ gait of conceptual apprehension, an overall consequence for all three categories showed an betterment in their post-test when compared to the pre-test tonss. From the post-test analysis, it was found that pupils were more cognizant of the alterations of the curve from speed-time graph to distance-time graph. It was perceived that the activities designed in this Learning Study may be helpful in developing pupils ‘ apprehension.
Background of the Study
The survey that I have proposed for this research is a continuance of the Learning Study that I have started in 2011. This survey will concentrate more on Cycle Three but will be related to the other two rhythms for a little comparing on findings in Chapter Four. Issues related to the survey will be discussed briefly in this subdivision.
Conversion of Travel Graphs
The Learning Study related to this research exercising is utilizing a subtopic on Travel Graphs ( refer to Appendix E for a elaborate content coverage on Travel Graphs ) entitled ‘Conversion of Travel Graphs ‘ which focus on change overing speed-time graphs to distance-time graphs and from distance-time graph to speed-time graphs. Students should hold learnt the subjects listed below as portion of their requirement:
Gradient of a consecutive line.
Graph of maps.
Area of polygons ( specifically on squares, rectangles, trigons and trapeziums ) .
The ground behind this chosen subject is because by and large pupils are found to hold a trouble in change overing the speed-time graph to distance-time graph and frailty versa. Whether in the category or during an test, pupils either skipped the inquiry or answered by chalk outing similar lines to that of the given travel graphs. As agreed by the Mathematics section ‘s members in the old school that I had taught ( afterlife will be referred as School X ) , this misconception should be rectified and therefore, the choice of this subject for our Learning Study. Furthermore, the first two rhythms for this peculiar subject began in 2011. Since Learning Study is an ongoing undertaking by the Ministry of Education, members involved agreed to go on this subject in 2012 but with a different attack.
The Use of ICT
Even though we are nearing a new epoch of e-Hijrah, every bit far as is known, the usage of ICT is still missing in schools. Despite the fact that one million millions of dollars have been invested, non all instructors are to the full committed in back uping the principle of e-Hijrah merely yet. The force per unit area of completing the course of study on clip ( Krestina, 2008 ) has ever been a major alibi used by instructors and to add farther, planing an synergistic lesson is assumed to take a longer clip to program.
Purpose and Significance of the Study
The chief purpose for this chosen survey is targeted to instructors ‘ development in instruction and pupils ‘ development in their acquisition. The intent is to heighten pupils ‘ understanding on a mathematical construct with the integrating of ICT in a Learning Study and to switch instructors off from the traditional methods of learning to a more systematic and meaningful acquisition through the work of coaction between co-workers. One might hold that pupils will profit more from meaningful larning as it exposes them to different types of accomplishments such as ICT accomplishments, job resolution, communicating accomplishments and many more which will be utile in their future projects. Furthermore, pupils will hold the advantage of using the construct of Conversion of Travel Graphs to topics like Additional Mathematics and Physics and even use them in existent life context.
Apart from that, the primary intent of the survey is to detect instructors ‘ perceptual experiences on Learning Study and ICT and to look into the impact of engineering on pupils ‘ understanding on Conversion of Travel Graphs. Students ‘ misconceptions are besides sought into in this survey. The program for this research is to make an intercession by following the research lesson from the Learning Study that was designed and conducted in the twelvemonth 2011 in School X. This is traveling to be in it ‘s 3rd rhythm and will aim on its impact on the subject chosen.
It is expected that with the above intents, instructors will profit the results of the survey. The procedure of planing and modifying the research lesson in Learning Study helps to develop the coaction between instructors and better the criterion of the lesson content to a more cognitive attack. Teachers will be able to utilize the instruments used in this research as a base in measuring their pupils when learning the several subject. Additionally, instructors will assist to advance engineering exposure to the pupils by involuntarily learning pupils to the usage of free package from the cyberspace.
As described from the above intents, it can be deduced that the survey will chiefly concentrate on pupils ‘ public presentation and instructors ‘ perceptual experiences on ICT and Learning Study. The three research inquiries for this survey will concentrate on these interrelated facets and they are:
What is the impact of incorporating ICT in a Learning Study context on pupils ‘ public presentation on Conversion of Travel Graphs? ( afterlife will be referred as RQ1 )
What are the pupils ‘ misconceptions after the intercession takes topographic point? ( afterlife will be referred as RQ2 )
What are the instructors ‘ positions on Learning Study and on the integrating of ICT in a Learning Study? ( afterlife will be referred as RQ3 )
Scope and Restrictions of the Study
The subject Conversion of Travel Graphs is specifically to be taught to all Year 9 pupils who are taking GCE O ‘ Level Examination. This subject will be taught towards the terminal of the whole lesson on Travel Graphs ( refer to Appendix E ) after all of the contents on using expressions, pulling and construing graphs and reviewing gradients are to the full covered. In add-on to this, Year 9 pupils should be taught two prerequisite subjects beforehand, Coordinate Geometry and Graphs of Functions, both of which are the subjects to be covered in the same twelvemonth. This makes the subject to be delivered likely before the school ‘s 3rd term interruption. The clip for all this is about early or late August. This will somewhat detain the intercession.
The survey will concentrate on a little figure of samples merely. Students chosen are of both high and average winners. This is because the research lessons will take at least three lessons. Each lesson will take about one hr. Students considered as medium to low winners are non selected. It is thought that it will impact the topic instructor ‘s agenda in following his or her strategy of work. Medium to low winners are thought to necessitate more clip in footings of scaffolding the lesson to them.
Another expected restriction will be on the issue of pupils ‘ absentees. Students ‘ absence will cut down the little figure of pupils that are to be assessed. This in bend will take down the figure of pupils take parting in this survey. The consequence may besides be affected due to the Hawthorne consequence. Students may move otherwise under the influence of observation by the instructors involved in the Learning Study. Harmonizing to Draper ( 2010 ) , Hawthorne consequence is an experimental consequence where any positive important consequence has no existent causal footing merely because the participants know that they are being studied.