Science Investigation Essay Research Paper Science

Science Investigation Essay, Research Paper

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

Science InvestigationInvestigation: I have performed an experiment in order to see the

effects of changing the concentration of reactants on the reaction between

hydrochloric acid and marble french friess. Planning: The experiment I have performed involved the

reaction between hydrochloric acid and Ca carbonate ( marble french friess ) to

green goods Ca chloride, H2O and C dioxide. The chemical equation for

this reaction is: ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? CaCO3? + 2HCl? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? CaCl2

? ? + H2 O + CO2Background Information: In order for a reaction to happen atoms of the

reactants must clash with a certain minimum energy in order for merchandises to

be produced. ? This minimal energy must

be supplied in order to interrupt the bonds in the reactants and let new bonds to

be formed.There are a figure of variables that will impact the

rate of a reaction. ? In order to make

a just probe these variables must be examined and controlled so that

accurate consequences can be obtained and decisions drawn.i )

Temperature-Increasing

temperature increases the kinetic energy of the particles. ? This means that hits between reactant

atoms becomes more frequent and occurs with more energy. ? Since a greater proportion of the atoms

hold sufficient energy to interrupt the bonds in the reactants, more merchandises can

be formed increasing the rate of reaction. ? ?

In this probe, temperature will be kept changeless at room

temperature so that merely the consequence of concentration is being measured.ii )

Catalysts-Catalysts addition the rate of reaction by supplying

an alternate tract for the reaction to continue that requires less energy

and hence takes topographic point more rapidly. ?

In this probe, a accelerator will non be used since the reaction

should take topographic point sufficiently rapidly for accurate measurings to be taken. three )

Surface Area-An increased surface country increases the figure of

hits between the reactants. ? This

increases the figure of hits likely to be successful and hence

increases the rate of reaction. In this probe the size of marble french friess

( used as a beginning of Ca carbonate ) will be kept every bit changeless as possible so

that merely the consequence of changing concentration is being measured. four )

Concentration-Increasing

the concentration of reactants increases the figure of atoms available for

hits and therefore the figure of atoms that can be converted in to

merchandises, increasing the rate of reaction.Apparatus list: Marble french friess ( Calcium carbonate ) Stop-clock Connection tubing Retort stand Digital graduated tables Boss and clamp Conical Flask Safety goggles Paper towels Mat Gas cylinder Rubber spile Hydrochloric acid Measuring cylinder Method: I foremost set up the setup as shown in the

diagram below. I used digital graduated tables to weigh 6 sets of 15? medium?

french friess separately at 3.0 gms and separated them into different beakers.

Then, utilizing a measurement cylinder, I measured out 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0M of

hydrochloric acid from the containers and into separate beakers. I so

collected the rejoinder base, foreman and clinch and put them up in the correct

place. I collected a mat and conelike flask, puting the flask on the mat in

forepart of the base. I so collected a gas syringe and fixed it into the clinch

by fastening it at the center of the syringe. I collected a gum elastic spile and

fixed the connexion tubing that comes with the gas syringe all the manner through I

took the first set of 15 marble french friess and tipped them into the conelike flask. I

took the first beaker of ( 0.5M ) hydrochloric acid, and poured the contents into

the conelike flask, and so rapidly fixed the connected spile into the top of

the flask, at the same time get downing the stop-clock. Then, every 10 seconds I

took a reading from the gas syringe of how much gas had been produced. I

continued for 3 proceedingss ( 180 seconds ) or until the gas syringe has reached the

maximal volume, entering each consequence onto paper. I disconnected the spile from

the conelike flask and so I reset the gas syringe to 0. I emptied the contents

of the conelike flask into a container and rinsed the flask with H2O, drying

it exhaustively with paper towels. I placed the flask on the mat and repeated the

process until all the trials were complete. To stay safe while executing the different trials,

I wore safety goggles and an apron when utilizing the hydrochloric acid. I besides

ensured careful handling in all parts of testing.To maintain the experiment carnival throughout, I needed to

guarantee the cardinal variables remained changeless throughout my experiment. This ensured

my chosen variable of concentration was isolated in the experiment ; the consequences

are so more accurate and direct.For temperature, I realised that in rinsing the

conelike flasks utilizing tap H2O, the temperature of the flasks would change

greatly. The first flask would non be washed, intending it would non chill

significantly like the other flasks. As there were non adequate flasks to utilize a

new one after each trial, I washed the first conelike flask and tried to acquire each

conelike flask to the same waterlessness degree, utilizing paper towels. Another heat variable comes from traveling the conelike

flasks, prior to each trial ; the heat from my custodies transportations to the flasks. To

minimise this I handled the conelike flasks from the top. This means there is no

heat near the underside of the flask, where the reaction takes topographic point to impact it. For the cardinal variable of accelerators, I ensured there

would be no necessary intervention to the consequences by non utilizing a accelerator in

any portion of my experiment. For surface country, this applies to the marble french friess.

I decided there were two factors, the figure of french friess, and the weight of the

french friess. This lone applies when the french friess are approximately the same size, and agencies

the surface country will be every bit even as possible and there is the same sum of

each bit, i.e. denseness. To make this, for each experiment we used 15? medium?

sized french friess and weighed each set to be 3.0 gms, utilizing the sensitive digital

graduated tables for the greatest accuracy.To be able to see the alterations in each reaction

clearly and compare consequences, I tested 4 different moles of hydrochloric acid,

0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0. To guarantee the greatest grade of truth I tested each

mole twice, and so for plotting the consequences, I took the norm for each

point. ( Time against volume produced ) I besides chose to take a 3rd trial if the

two sets of consequences for one mole were significantly different, bespeaking an

unjust portion to the trial. I besides chose to merely clip for 3 proceedingss as this would

be the maximal length of clip I could let due to the clip available and

figure of trials necessitating to be performed. This besides gave me adequate consequences in

order to see forms in the graphs and compare more accurately.Other variables I was cognizant of and accounted for

were: & # 216 ; Any merchandise gas escaping

between adding the hydrochloric acid to the marble french friess and suiting the spile

in the conelike flask. I minimised this by adding the acid at a steady flow each

clip, and seting the spile in every bit shortly as all the acid had been poured in. & # 216 ;

Shaking the flask to rush up the reaction. As I would

non be able to guarantee the degree of agitating or heat addition and what the

single consequence on each reaction would be, I decided that for all the trials I

would go forth the flask untouched while the reaction took place. & # 216 ;

Reseting and look intoing the setup. This included

doing certain the gas cylinder was reset to the full after each trial, and that the

setup was sealed decently prior to proving. Predictions: From the above and past scientific cognition, i.e. a

preliminary experiment, I predict that the higher the concentration of acid,

the faster the rate of reaction. This is due to the concentration of reactants

being relative to the rate of reaction. This cognition can be demonstrated

by this illustration: If there are 100 atoms of both reactants, A and

B. There is a certain opportunity of hits that could so be successful. If

the atoms of each reactant are doubled, the opportunity of hits is

doubled. Therefore the rate of reaction is doubled.It is for these grounds that I predict that as

concentration additions, so does the rate of reaction. Prediction graph: Rate of Reaction? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Concentration I can besides cipher the gas produced by the reaction: ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Moles? ? = ? Mass

( g ) ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? M? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? = ? ? ? 3.0? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 100? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? =0.03 moles of CaCO3? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

1 mole of CaCO3? produces 1 mole CO2? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

? ? ? Therefore 0.03 moles of CaCO3? produce 0.03 moles of CO2? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 1 mole occupies 24 diabetes mellitus? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 0.03 moles = 0.03 Ten 24? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? = 0.72 diabetes mellitus? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? = 720 centimeter? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Preliminary Experiment: To happen out whether my method would be the most

suited to have accurate consequences I chose to execute a preliminary

experiment. I chose to utilize 15? medium? french friess at 3.0 gms and

usage 150ml of hydrochloric acid at 1.0M. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Consequences tabular array for

Preliminary Experiment? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 1st? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 2nd? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Average? Time ( seconds ) Vol. of gas? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? produced ( cm3 ) ? Time ( seconds ) Vol. of gas produced

( cm3 ) ? Time ( seconds ) Vol. of gas produced.

( cm3 ) ? 0? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 0? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 0? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 0? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 0? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

0 10? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 3? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 10? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 5? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 10? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

4 20? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 5? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 20? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 5? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 20? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

5 30? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 7? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 30? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 7? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 30? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

7 40? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 9? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 40? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 10? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 40? ? ? ? ? ? ?

9.5 50? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 13? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 50? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 14? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 50? ? ? ? ? ?

13.5 60? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 18? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 60? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 21? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 60? ? ? ? ? ?

19.5 70? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 25? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 70? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 29? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 70? ? ? ? ? ? ?

27 80? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 32? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 80? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 34? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 80? ? ? ? ? ? ?

33 90? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 39? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 90? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 41? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 90? ? ? ? ? ?

39.5? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 100? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 44? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 100? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 47? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 100? ? ? ? ? ?

45.5? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 110? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 52? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 110? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 55? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 110? ? ? ? ? ?

53.5? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 120? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 61? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 120? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 63? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 120? ? ? ? ? ? ?

62? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 130? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 69? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 130? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 71? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 130? ? ? ? ? ? ?

70? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 140? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 77? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 140? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 79? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 140? ? ? ? ? ? ?

78? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 150? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 82? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 150? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 85? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 150? ? ? ? ? ?

83.5? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 160? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 88? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 160? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 92? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 160? ? ? ? ? ? ?

90? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 170? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 94? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 170? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 96? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 170? ? ? ? ? ? ?

95? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 180? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 95? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 180? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 97? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 180? ? ? ? ? ? ?

96 The experiment worked good and so I did non hold to

alteration anything in the method for the existent testing. Graph? A? shows the consequences for my preliminary

experiment and indicates the line of best tantrum and a consecutive mean tendency

line.From my consequences I could see that as clip increased,

so did the gas being produced, bespeaking that the reaction was taking topographic point

successful.Obtaining Evidence As I have antecedently mentioned, certain safeguards were

taken and ensured throughout proving to attest safety.After entering the consequences, I needed to be able to

see, and therefore understand them clearly in order to do graphs right and

accurately. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Consequences

tabular array for 0.5M of acid? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 1st? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 2nd? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Average? Time ( seconds ) Vol. of gas? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? produced ( cm3 ) ? Time ( seconds ) Vol. of gas produced

( cm3 ) ? Time ( seconds ) Vol. of gas produced.

( cm 3 ) ? 0? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 0? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 0? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 0? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 0? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 0 10? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 3.5? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 10? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 3? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 10? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 3.5 20? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 3.5? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 20? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 3? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 20? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 3.5 30? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 4? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 30? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 3.5? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 30? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 4 40? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 4.5? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 40? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 4? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 40? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 4.5 50? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 5? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 50? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 4.5? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 50? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 5 60? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 6? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 60? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 5? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 60? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

5.5 70? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 7? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 70? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 5.5? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 70? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 6.5 80? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 8? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 80? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 6.5? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 80? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 7.5 90? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 9? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 90? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 7? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 90? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 8? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 100? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 10? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 100? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 8? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 100? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 9? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 110? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 11.5? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 110? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 9? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 110? ? ? ? ? ? ? 10.5? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 120? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 12.5? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 120? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 10? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 120? ? ? ? ? ? ? 11.5? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 130? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 13.5? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 130? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 11? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 130? ? ? ? ? ? ? 12.5? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 140? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 15? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 140? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 12.5? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 140? ? ? ? ? ? ? 13.5? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 150? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 17? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 150? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 14? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 150? ? ? ? ? ? ? 15.5? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 160? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 19? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 160? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 16? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 160? ? ? ? ? ? ? 17.5? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 170? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 22? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 170? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 18? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 170? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 20? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 180? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 25? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 180? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 21? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 180? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 23 To make this, I have arranged my consequences as follows: ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Consequences

tabular array for 1.0M of acid? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 1st? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 2nd? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Average? Time ( seconds ) Vol. of gas? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? produced ( cm3 ) ? Time ( seconds ) Vol. of gas produced

( cm3 ) ? Time ( seconds ) Vol. of gas produced.

( cm3 ) ? 0? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 0? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 0? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 0? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 0? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 0 10? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 5? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 10? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 4? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 10? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 4.5 20? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 7? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 20? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 6? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 20? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 6.5 30? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 9? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 30? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 8? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 30? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 8.5 40? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 13? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 40? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 11? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 40? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 12 50? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 15? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 50? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 14? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 50? ? ? ? ? ? ? 14.5 60? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 18? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 60? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 17? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 60? ? ? ? ? ? ? 17.5 70? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 23? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 70? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 22? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 70? ? ? ? ? ? ? 22.5 80? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 28? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 80? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 26? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 80? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 27 90? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 34? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 90? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 32? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 90? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 33? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 100? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 40? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 100? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 38? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 100? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 39? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 110? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 47? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 110? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 44? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 110? ? ? ? ? ? ? 45.5? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 120? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 53? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 120? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 50? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 120? ? ? ? ? ? ? 51.5? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 130? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 59? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 130? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 57? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 130? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 58? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 140? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 67? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 140? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 64? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 140? ? ? ? ? ? ? 65.5? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 150? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 74? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 150? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 70? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 150? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 72? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 160? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 79? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

160? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 75? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 160? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 77? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 170? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 84? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 170? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 80? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 170? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 82? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 180? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 89? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 180? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 85? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 180? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 87? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Consequences table for 1.5M of acid? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 1st? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 2nd? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Average? Time ( seconds ) Vol. of gas? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? produced ( cm3 ) ? Time ( seconds ) Vol. of gas produced

( cm3 ) ? Time ( seconds ) Vol. of gas produced.

( cm3 ) ? 0? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 0? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 0? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 0? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 0? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 0 10? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 6? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 10? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 5? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 10? ? ? ? ? ? ? 5.5 20? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 10? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 20? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 9? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 20? ? ? ? ? ? ? 9.5 30? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 16? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 30? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 15? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 30? ? ? ? ? ? 15.5 40? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 22? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 40? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 21? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 40? ? ? ? ? ? 21.5 50? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 31? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 50? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 29? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 50? ? ? ? ? ? ? 30 60? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 38? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 60? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 36? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 60? ? ? ? ? ? ? 37 70? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 47? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 70? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 45? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 70? ? ? ? ? ? ? 46 80? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 57? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 80? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 55? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 80? ? ? ? ? ? ? 56 90? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 67? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 90? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 65? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 90? ? ? ? ? ? ? 66? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 100? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 76? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 100? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 74? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 100? ? ? ? ? ? ? 75? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 110? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 84? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 110? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 83? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 110? ? ? ? ? ? 83.5? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 120? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 97? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 120? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 95? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 120? ? ? ? ? ? ? 96? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 130? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 107? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 130? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 105? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 130? ? ? ? ? ? 106? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 140? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 140? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 140? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 150? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 150? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 150? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 160? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 160? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 160? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 170? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 170? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 170? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 180? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 180? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 180? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Consequences

tabular array for 2.0M of acid? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 1st? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 2nd? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Average? Time ( seconds ) Vol. of gas? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? produced ( cm3 ) ? Time ( seconds ) Vol. of gas produced

( cm3 ) ? Time ( seconds ) Vol. of gas produced.

( cm3 ) ? 0? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 0? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 0? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 0? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 0? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 0 10? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 7? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 10? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 9? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 10? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 8 20? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 12? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 20? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 14? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 20? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 13 30? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 19? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 30? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 22? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 30? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 21 40? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 26? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 40? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 30? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 40? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 28 50? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 36? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 50? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 37? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 50? ? ? ? ? ? ? 36.5 60? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 48? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 60? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 50? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 60? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 49 70? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 57? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 70? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 58? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 70? ? ? ? ? ? ? 57.5 80? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 68? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 80? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 64? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 80? ? ? ? ? ? ? 65.5 90? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 76? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 90? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 79? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 90? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 78? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 100? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 90? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 100? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 90? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 100? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 90? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 110? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 103? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 110? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 105? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 110? ? ? ? ? ? ? 104? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 120? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 120? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 120? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 130? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 130? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 130? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 140? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 140? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 140? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 150? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 150? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 150? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 160? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 160? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 160? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 170? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 170? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 170? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 180? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 180? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 180 Observations: When I reacted the marble french friess with the

hydrochloric acid, I observed different effects taking topographic point. In the first

blink of an eye that the two reactants made contact, I observed nil occur. However one time

the acid had settled indoors the flask a 2nd later foaming began to happen,

bring forthing bubbles that rose to the surface in a milky mix, after going

upward through the acid while some bubbles that formed, stayed on the marble

french friess for longer. ? As this bubbling

occurred, there was an hearable? foaming? sound I detected straight from where

the reaction was happening. I did non detect a color alteration different to the

marble french friess, nor did I notice a seeable gas lifting through the already present

air in the flask.Graph? B? shows the lines of best tantrum for the four

different concentrations of Hydrochloric acid.Graph

? C? shows the consecutive tendency lines for the four different concentrations of

Hydrochloric acid.Rates

of reactions: To happen out whether my anticipations are right, I need to

straight compare the concentration of Hydrochloric acid with the rates of

reaction on a graph. From this I can so do a consecutive tendency line that will

clearly demo me what the tendency in my consequences are.To

happen the different rates of reaction I divide the addition of gas by the clip

in seconds for each Mole of Hydrochloric acid.0.5

= 23? ? ? ? ? ? ? 180?

= ? 0.127 Concentration Rate? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 0.5? ? ? ? 0.127? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 1.0? ? ? ? 0.483? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 1.5 0.815384165? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 2.0? ? ? ? ? ? 0.9 1.0

= 87? ? ? ? ? ? ? 180?

= ? 0.483? ? 1.5

= 106 130

= ? 0.8153846152.0

= 90? ? ? ? ? ? ? 100?

= ? 0.9 Graph? D? shows the tendency line for concentration of Hydrochloric acid

against the rates of reaction.Analysing: From looking at graph B, I can see my consequences by looking at the line of

best tantrum. As clip additions so does the volume of gas produced. ? For all the moles of acid this addition

starts bit by bit before so constructing up to make a steeper portion of the curve.

For 1.0M of acid, I can besides see this curve get down to fall towards the

horizontal indicating that the gas produced is now diminishing. As for Moles 1.5

and 2.0 of acid, I can see the same form where the curve is steepest at

about half manner through the trial ( 90s ) . I expect that if the clip were increased

for these two trials, I would see the same bead toward the horizontal. For 0.5M

of acid, the full form is at that place, but as the consequences are merely deviated a

small it is hard to see clearly. From looking at graph? C? , I can clearly see how different the consequences are

from each other as it shows a consecutive tendency line for each M of acid. The

greatest difference can be seen between 0.5 and 1.0M, the 2nd largest was

between 1.0 and 1.5 and the smallest difference was between 1.5 and 2.0M of

acid. I can besides see that there is a form at the start of each test.Graph

? Tocopherol? shows the graph for 1.0M of Hydrochloric acid.In Graph? E? I have chosen to utilize a line of best tantrum as I

can see how some points are non in sync with it. I have besides chosen to utilize 1.0M

of acid to show a form, as it is most outstanding in these consequences. I

noticed that for each set of consequences, the first point on each line was above

the lines of best tantrum as indicated. ? I realised

that this was happening when I placed the spile in the conelike flask. As I did

this, the air inside the conelike flask would of tight therefore forcing air

through the connexion tubing into the gas syringe. The sum of addition in the

syringe would so be varied as the sum the spile was pushed in.From looking at graph? D? I can see how concentration

affects the rate of reaction straight by usage of a consecutive tendency line. It is

clearly obvious that the rate of reaction is straight relative to

concentration. Predictions: As I predicted in a statement and a graph, the rate of

reaction is straight relative to the concentration. This is seen from graph

? D? , where each point for concentration is higher for the rate of reaction than

the old. Again indicated by the consecutive tendency line that shows positive

correlativity. Decision: My anticipation is right because the concentration of

reactants is a critical factor that affects the rate of a reaction. This can be

explained by understanding how reactions occur and how different factors affect

them.For reactions to happen, atoms must clash with a

sufficient force. The concentration of a reactant determines how many atoms

of that peculiar reactant will be in a solution. If you increase the

concentration, therefore increasing the figure of reactant atoms, so

hits are more likely to happen. This can be demonstrated clearly by the

diagram below: If you increase the figure of hits between the

atoms of reactants, you will consequently increase the rate of reaction.I can besides show this by my rate of reaction

results:1.0M is half of 2.0M of Hydrochloric acid So the rate of reaction for 1.0M should be half the rate

of reaction for 2.0M of Hydrochloric acid1.0M = 0.4832.0M = 0.9As you can see, the rate of reaction is near to duplicate,

from 1.0M to 2.0M Evaluation: For this probe, I found repeated consequences were

similar to the first, bespeaking a good method with no significant errors. I

besides found my consequences to be similar to some other people? s, while transcending the

criterion of others. To hold just consequences in this probe I needed to

guarantee several factors remained changeless throughout proving. However I can merely

achieve a degree of truth depending on how just my testing is. I feel, for the

equipment and stuffs we were allowed to utilize, I achieved a high criterion of

truth that gave me first-class consequences with minimum anomalies.Here I will name the factors that may be the cause for

little inaccuracies in my experiment. This will demo how anomalousnesss can be

accounted for: & # 183 ;

Scales non right read or put, giving different

measurings of Ca carbonate. & # 183 ;

Variations in pouring Hydrochloric acid, more or less

agitation of the marble french friess, changing surface area. & # 183 ;

Agreement of french friess when placed in flask, changing

surface country for acid. & # 183 ;

Clash in the gas syringe traveling at a minimum

force per unit area, i.e. non smoothly. & # 183 ;

Supplanting of gas when infixing spile into flask. & # 183 ;

Calcium carbonate dust that is weighed and so non

used in the reaction. & # 183 ;

Marble french friess non of equal surface area. & # 183 ;

Differences in H2O left from rinsing the conelike

flask after each test.The merely manner a wholly just trial could happen with the

most accurate consequences, would be to follow the undermentioned factors and to account

for the old ones. & # 167 ;

A wholly unfertile and changeless research lab

environment. & # 167 ;

Exact Hydrochloric acid volumes or larger measures of

acid and marble french friess i.e. 500ml of acid and 10 gms of Ca carbonate therefore

cut downing surface country as a factor. ? & # 167 ;

Exact bit figure, weight and surface country. & # 167 ;

Pure Calcium Carbonate. & # 167 ;

Allow all of the reaction to happen irrespective of

clip. & # 167 ;

Take an infinite figure of trials and mean precisely. & A ; religious order