Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine
G.S. Skovoroda Kharkiv National Pedagogical University
Institute of Postgraduate Education
Department of English Philology
STYLISTIC POTENTIAL OF TENSE-ASPECT VERBAL FORMS IN MODERN ENGLISH
1. Theoretical background of the research of stylistic potency of tense-aspect verbal signifiers
1.1 Perspective of the research
1.2 The analysis of the stylistic potency of tense-aspect verbal signifiers in modern English by foreign linguists
1.3 The analysis of the stylistic potency of tense-aspect verbal signifiers in modern English by place linguists
2.The analysis of stylistic potency of tense-aspect verbal signifiers in modern English
2.1 The types of heterotaxies of verbal signifiers as stylistic agencies in the class of tense
2.2 The types of heterotaxies of verbal signifiers as stylistic agencies in the class of facet
3.Methodological recommendations for instruction of tense-aspect verbal signifiers in English linguistic communication utilizing their stylistic potency
More and more linguists and specializers in survey of literature attract their attending to jobs of Stylistics and Stylistics itself is divided into some particular subjects which tend to distinguish. But at the same clip every bit good as in any other scientific discipline we can detect the integrating of the procedures that is the intensification of different parts of cognition and visual aspect of new modern man-made subdivisions. New jobs have been involved in the domain of stylistic researches, a batch of informations and plans have been studied and new facets of linguistic communication factors and characteristics have been discovered. Our involvement in these points is the first reasonof the visual aspect of our paper.
From the point of our position English Grammar is the most hard topic for survey non merely for pupils but everyone who wants to be a professional philologue. That why the 2nd reasonfor authorship of our paper is the complications of the descriptions of some hard grammar countries particularly & # 171 ; verb-section & # 187 ; in the frames of simpleness.
The verb as a party of address is the most capacious grammar class. In verbal word with all assortment of its indications, significances and stylistic potencies there are combinations with different grammar signifiers, organic connexions and associations with tenses and facet, which characterize all verbal system in the whole. So the 3rd reasonof our paper is to analyse some verbal factors and characteristics on the & # 171 ; brighter grammar & # 187 ; degree with taking into our consideration some interrelatednesss between grammar signifiers, their functional content and stylistic potency in contexts.
It will be really of import to tag that General Morphology ( non-stylistic ) dainties morphemes and grammatical significances expressed by them in linguistic communication in general, without respect to their stylistic value. Stylistic Morphology, on the contrary, is interested in grammatical signifiers and grammatical significances in the stylistic domain, explicitly or implicitly comparing them with the impersonal signifiers common for all sublanguages.
The nature, the kernel of stylistic phenomena is radically different in instances where morpheme, word, phrase themselves are analyzed as chosen out of the paradigm from the instances when we try to explicate the consequence produced by given forms of the uniting units in address and text. When we use the signifier& # 171 ; are n’t & # 187 ;
alternatively of & # 171 ; have non or am / is / are non & # 187 ; , the sentence& # 171 ; John here? & # 187 ;
alternatively of & # 171 ; Is John here? & # 187 ; , or one significance alternatively of another all could besides use. This is what illustrates the paradigmatic subdivision of Stylistics.
In the vocalizations:I ask you / I pray you / I beseech you & # 8211 ;
we can detect the interrelatedness between the significances that is& # 171 ; pray & # 187 ;
is stronger than & # 171 ; inquire & # 187 ; ;& # 171 ; beseech & # 187 ;
is the strongest of all three. They are the systematic subdivision of Stylistics.
Stylistic morphology, both paradigmatic and systematic, has non yet been given full attending, particularly with respect to English linguistic communication. It isthe 4th ground
for our paper.
Therefore, in the paper we turn our attending to the stylistic significances associated with tenses and aspect holding already cover with their grammar signifiers.
Topicalityof our job includes some point. The function of some bookmans in development of Stylistics is really high particularly in Stylistic Grammar but in the whole, non specifically: Palmer, Hornby, Quirk, Yule, Skrebnev, Block and others. There are merely a few monographs devoted to Stylistic Morphology as a specific researches. In our yearss the involvement in this job increases because we can see some inquiries and jobs which are non studied plenty, viz. :
– intensions of tense-aspect verbal system conveyed by verbal signifiers in different contextual state of affairss including heterotaxies and emotional expressiveness ;
– lexico-grammatical classs in the peripheral field of facet and expantion them in the visible radiation of stylistic potency ;
– idiomatic buildings with different significances in contexts ;
– how to utilize morphological agencies of Stylistics and expend their stylistic potency ;
– the deep work with tense-aspect verbal forms the chief purpose of which is to assist pupils understand contexts of English writers more intensive and intensive.
These grammatical jobs are really of import, particularly on the pedagogical degree in the frames of pupil & # 8217 ; s survey, and they were presented by Rayevska N.M. , Morokhovskiei A.N. , Efimov L.P. and others.
We present new types of tabular arraies, diagrams descriptions, exemplifying stuff to make the high degree of pupils cognition and to arouse their partisan in farther probes. New illustrations from the original literature quoted from Dickens, Collins, Austen and other writers non merely confirm the grammatical investings of name bookmans in solution of practical value of Stylistic grammar for existent seminar surveies. In our paper we actualize the subject job by demoing that the general research area-stylistic potency of English verb & # 8211 ; is of import, cardinal, interesting, debatable.
aspect verbal signifier are used to show elusive stylistic niceties and impretions in spoken English, in distributions of visible radiation and shadiness of verbal pigments ; with the intents to travel over from one manner to another.
The why the subject of our paper is determined as & # 171 ; stylistic potency of tense-aspect verbal signifiers in modern English & # 187 ; .
The object of our survey
is & # 171 ; The Tense-Aspect verbal signifier as many aspectual factor in Theoretical English Grammar & # 187 ; .
The topic of our survey
is & # 171 ; Stylistic potency of tense-aspect verbal signifiers in modern English & # 187 ; .
Tense-Aspect verbal signifiers as constructive grammar agencies for two types of heterotaxies and some look from the peripheral field in the frames ofSpoken English.
Original text, lexicons, synonym finders, monographs, history beginnings, theoretical grammar text editions by English, Ukrainian and Russian writers, some pieces of information from Internet, a batch of stuff from Foreign Philology Faculty of G.S. Scovoroda Kharkiv National Pedagogical University ( talks, books, English Language Encyclopedia ) , newspapers, diaries.
The cardinal involvement in our paper is connected with really specifical but of import for existent apprehension of spoken Englishjobs
in the frames of Theoretical English Grammar, connected with tense-aspect verbal signifiers, their characteristics, buildings and behaviour in specific environment. Analyzing tense-aspect verbal signifiers from these places we have marked connotative facet and emotional overtones as of import semantic constituents of spoken Englishthat is stylistic potency of tense-aspect verbal signifier.
All these thoughts are based on rule which are related by Theoretical English Grammar on the university degree.
The treatment of the tense-aspect verbal signifiers and their stylistic potency in modern English has been made concrete by the usage of exemplifying illustrations in the practical portion of our paper, citations from the original literature, tabular arraies, diagrams, comparing with Ukrainian and Russian.
Main methods for researching of our subject job:
Methods of scientific research used in our paper have been connected with the general tendencies in the scientific discipline of linguistic communication, viz. :
& # 8211 ; critical and contextological analysis of some original texts with the purpose to show the samples and the instances of pattern of stylistic potency of tense-aspect verbal signifiers in modern English ;
& # 8211 ; the historical attack that is retrospective exposure of native and universe experience ;
& # 8211 ; arousing facts, samples and generalisation them in boundary lines of the positive and existent pattern ;
& # 8211 ; philological observations utilizing particularly two types of heterotaxies and rules of the peripheral field so that to spread out the boundary lines of the traditional Theoretical English Grammar and obtain some instances to broad pupils knowledge ;
In the visible radiation of our doctrine and philological observations, critical and contextological analysis of some original contexts our consequences were obtained on the border of some lingual scientific disciplines:Stylistics
( Decoding ) ,Functional Grammar, Syntax, Functional and Communicative Linguistics, Theory of Interpretation of Text, Theory of Contextual Situation
At the terminal our paper, there are somethoughts for instructors
to assist them of exercisings and activities for pupils.
Further Reading List
has been given for instructors who wants to spread out their linguistic communication accomplishments by the manner of extra probes.
1.Theoretical background of the research of stylistic potency of tense-aspect verbal signifiers
Position of the research
Interest in our chief job, how it originated, how it works and develops, has existed in distant ages. Chronologically at one time we pay our particular attending to persons, whose part to the topic & # 8211 ;Stylistic Potential of Tense-Aspect Verbal Forms in Modern English & # 8211 ;
has been well-known. In Table 1 that we have completed for pupils we present some names of philologue, rubrics of their plants, old ages who began to research this job many old ages ago up to now. [ 38 ; 43 ; 47 ]
Our short overview we begin withWilliam Lily
( 1468 & # 8211 ; 1522 ) who wrote& # 171 ; A short Introduction of Grammar & # 187 ;
and was the first between others in this domain. Then in 1580& # 171 ; A Treatise for Declining Verb & # 187 ;
was written byClaudius Holyband
( 1580 ) . After thatWilliam Bullokar
( 1530 & # 8211 ; 1609 ) created the first grammar of English& # 171 ; Pamphlet for Grammar & # 187 ;
in 1586, a short study based on Lily & # 8217 ; s Lating Grammar.
Naturally in this old ages the battle for national grammar and linguistic communication began andJohn Wallis
( 1616 & # 8211 ; 1703 ) wroteGramatica Liguae Anglicanae
( 1649 ) for foreign pupils that was held in high regard but has merely produced since the 18th century.John Walker & # 8217 ; s Ryming Dictionary of the English Language
( 1732 & # 8211 ; 1807 ) is used in plants onstylistic jobs
by our modern-day bookmans. Next wasLindley Murray
( 1745 & # 8211 ; 1826 ) who published hisEnglish Grammar,
adapted to the different categories of scholars, and became the best-known bookman with the moniker & # 171 ; Father of English Grammar & # 187 ; .
In 1853 twelvemonthMacel Claude Victor Andre
( 1793 & # 8211 ; 1875 ) published his major workLanguage as a Means of Mental Culture and International Communication,
written in English, where he showed his place that & # 171 ; feeling & # 187 ; & # 8211 ;stylistic background of grammar
& # 8211 ; should ever predate & # 171 ; look & # 187 ; . Thena Grammar of Spoken English
with a batch ofstylistic characteristics
was presented byPalmer Harold
( 1923 ) . His friend who became efficaciously Palmer & # 8217 ; s & # 171 ; crown prince & # 187 ; & # 8211 ;Hornby Albert
( 1898 & # 8211 ; 1979 ) & # 8211 ; developed thoughts and undertakings in his pedagogical grammarGuide to Pattens and Usage in English
( 1954 ) where the writer put the construct of & # 171 ; grammar clip & # 187 ; on the first topographic point: what type of grammar clip we need to utilize for showing of definite temporal relationship, places and provinces.
In this clipEckersley C.E.
( 1893 & # 8211 ; 1967 ) wroteBrighter Grammar
( 1953 ) were he tried to near English grammar in the same & # 171 ; scientific & # 187 ; manner and to demo that it is non a aggregation of dull, dead words but a living thing.
A batch of plants on Linguisticss which are used by Russian and Ukrainian bookmans were written byOttor Jesprsen
( 1860 & # 8211 ; 1943 ) , particularly his monumentalModern English Grammar
( 1909 & # 8211 ; 1949 ) ;The Philosophy of Grammar
( 1924 ) ,Efficiency in Linguistic Change
( 1943 ) and others. Edward Sapir wrote in a Danish newspaper:
& # 171 ; Your ( Jespersen & # 8217 ; s ) work has ever seemed to me to be distinguished by its blend of exact cognition, acuteness of analysis, easiness and clarity ofSTYLE,
and by an inventive heat that is surely non common in scientific authorship & # 187 ; [ 43 ; 95 ] .
The world can be seen in the three kg of paper ofA Comprehensive Grammar of English Language
( 1985 ) written byRandolph Quirk
and his squad. In our paper we will work Chapter 4& # 171 ; The Semantics of the Verbal Phrase & # 187 ; .
We have completedTable 1
for those pupils who wish to go on their researches this job in the historical frames.
Throughout of centuries English Scholar created the system of the Morphology Grammar where English verbal forms as the footing of Grammar have bit by bit been presented, studied and researched as agreat stylistic potency.
Bing placed in unusual syntagmatic environmentwhich change their canonised grammatical features and combinability, English Verbs getstylistic important.
1.2 The analysis of the stylistic potency of tense-aspect verbal signifiers in modern English by foreign linguists
The motive forGearge Yuri & # 8217 ; s
authoritative workExplaing English Grammar
is to depict and explicate the basic signifiers of the present and past tenses, perfect and progressive facets and chief constructions of the English verb composite. Pulling on his experiment we want to add some interesting points from his thoughts.
Harmonizing to G. Yuri & # 8217 ; s system [ 32 ; 54 & # 8211 ; 84 ] in order to depict the different signifiers of a verb, we need to speak abouttense
, which frequently has to make with the location of a state of affairs in clip, andfacet
, which characterizes the manner in which that state of affairs is perceived or experienced. The writer affirms that English has two distinguishable tense signifiers,nowadays and yesteryear tenses
, and two distinguishable signifiers for facet,perfect and progressive facets
, which are marked on the verb. Giving unusual tabular array with the basic construction of English verb signifiers G. Yuri underlines that the sense of squad& # 171 ; tense & # 187 ;
in English is non based on simple differentiations in clip.
And today Iwoke
with dividing concern.
Tomorrow I fly to London for a large meeting.
Yesterday the land tells me my rent ‘s traveling up.
The present signifier here ties the state of affairs described closely to the state of affairs of vocalization. The past tense signifier makes the state of affairs described more remote from the state of affairs of vocalization. Situation in thehereafter
are treated otherwise they are inherentlynon-factual
. The writer means that the verb signifier that is traditionally called& # 171 ; future tense & # 187 ;
is really expressed vie amodal verb
which indicates the comparative possibility of the event.
If we look inside the state of affairs we shall speak aboutfacet
[ 32 ; 63 & # 8211 ; 68 ] .Aspect
is divided by writer into two parts:
( stative and dynamic verbs ) ;
& # 8211 ;imperfect
viewed from the interior in advancement ;
& # 8211 ;perfect
viewed from outside in retrospect.
Tense is the location of a state of affairs, aspect & # 8211 ; the interior of a state of affairs.
In parts& # 171 ; Meaning in Contexts & # 187 ;
[ 32 ; 68 & # 8211 ; 72 ] Yuri G. shows how to utilize the stylistic potency of tense and facet in the practical attack. There is a major qualitative difference between analyzing the constituents of English Verb and analyzing how to utilize them fundamentally. When we construct a piece of affiliated address or authorship, whether in soliloquy or duologue, we are invariably tapping the lexical and grammatical resources of English verb to happen of doing our composing and peculiar consequence. More clearlyPeter Verdonk
Markss in his& # 171 ; Stylistics & # 187 ; , Oxford, 2002:
& # 171 ; Style involves a pick of signifier without a alteration of message.
It includes the motivations for pick and its consequence. If all differences in signifier are correlated with differences in significance, so the manner of a piece of authorship is merely its significance. The work may stand out because of its significance, or the writer may be exceptionally skilled in happening the right words for his significance and we take pleasance in his art, but the incorrect pick would hold meant something less & # 8211 ; they would non conveyed the significance & # 187 ; [ 40 ; 7 & # 8211 ; 8 ] .
Describing how to utilize regardful manners in a magazine article, intelligence studies, academic authorship, narrations, spoken discuses and others Yuri G. gives some easy accounts:
& # 8211 ; information that is treated as portion of the& # 171 ; background & # 187 ;
will be given to be expressed in thepast annoyer
& # 8211 ; information that is current concern, in the& # 171 ; foreground & # 187 ;
will be expressed in thepresent tense
& # 8211 ; background scene-stting, peculiarly in narratives, is frequently expressed in thepast imperfect
& # 8211 ; ongoing current state of affairss are described in thepresent imperfect
& # 8211 ; sing recent alterations from the current state of affairs is typically expressed byperfect facet
Following the description of basic verbal signifiers, Yuri G. conveys non merely specific characteristics of verbal signifiers and constructions harmonizing to tenses and facets, but includes a piece of information on how significances of verbal signifiers can be shaped bf context and communicative intent & # 8211 ;stylistic potency of verbal signifiers.
Written in a clear manner and natural, apprehensible linguistic communication [ 38 ; 41 ]& # 171 ; A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language & # 187 ;
is presented byRandolph Quirk
and his squad in 1986. & # 171 ; In the 4th chapter we examine the semantics of the verb phrase, and in peculiar of the finite verb phrase & # 187 ; , wrote Quirk R. [ 29 ; 175 ] . Some points from this interesting stuff about clip, tense and facet will be really utile for treatment in our paper. The writers give us a batch of tabular arraies and diagrams, illustrations with the chief purpose to explicate verbal system clearly and limpidly. Get downing from the present tense the writers line down that on the semantic degree of reading& # 171 ; present & # 187 ;
is the most general and unmarked class.
e.g. : Johnspends
a batch of money. ( true for past, present, hereafter )
californium. : Johnspent
a batch of money. ( true for past merely )
The writers prefer to follow those syntacticians who have treated& # 171 ; tense & # 187 ;
merely as a class realized byverb inflexion
, and in their Grammar they do non speak about & # 171 ; hereafter & # 187 ; [ 29 ; 176 ] as a formal class but they do state about showing the semantic class offuture clip
.We can add the same points of position given by T.A. Rastorguieva and L.S. Barkhudarov.
[ 31 ; 28 ]
Monday, and tomorrowis
you making tomorrow?
The semantic classs of yesteryear, nowadays, future apply non so much to clip, as to occurrences which take topographic point in clip, and which are denoted by verbs.
for success. ( refers to & # 171 ; a past hope of Mary )
a great trade. ( refers to Peter & # 8217 ; s present cognition )
The place squadwill be
, ( refers to & # 171 ; a future licking of the place & # 187 ; )
The writers shall separate different classs under the rubricof state of affairs types
that is they talk ofdynamic
( count ) and stative ( noncount )significance
instead so dynamic and stative verbs. This is because one verb may switch from one class to another, for illustration,
& # 8211 ; the stative significance of & # 171 ; have & # 187 ; is & # 171 ; possess & # 187 ; ;
& # 8211 ; the dynamic significance of & # 171 ; have & # 187 ; is & # 171 ; eat & # 187 ; .
beautiful carved legs rather often. ( has=possess, that is & # 171 ; holding carved legs & # 187 ; is a province )
at Maxim & # 8217 ; s rather often.
( have dinner= eat, that is & # 171 ; holding dinner & # 187 ; is an event )
All these verbs are divided intodynamic
, which are presented in two tabular arraies. We mean, that these two tabular arraies are non convenient for learning and analyzing and we have replaced and reconstructed them harmonizing to our require( Tables 2 & # 8211 ; 3 ) .
Meanings of thesimple present tense
with mention tonowadays
can be divided into:
cubic decimeter.The province nowadays
, or alleged & # 171 ; ageless truths & # 187 ; or & # 171 ; timeless present & # 187 ; :
the best policy.
Two and threeis
2.The instantaneous nowadays
implies that event has little or no continuance and is completed about at the minute of address:
& # 8211 ; commentaries, presentations, particular exclamatory sentences, performatives.
Blackbase on ballss
the ball to Fernanders & # 8230 ;
3.Particular non nowadays
utilizations of the present tense:
& # 8211 ; the allegedhistorical nowadays
, which conveys something of the dramatic immediateness of an eye-witness history. It is found with verbs of communicating:state, state, etc
, and the consequence & # 8211 ; the information communicated & # 8211 ; is still operative.
The Bible speaks & # 8230 ;
Historical nowadays describesthe yesteryear as if it is
go oning now.
4. Thesimple nowadays in fictional narration:
the events narrated by agencies of the historical nowadays areexistent,
but narrated byfictional & # 171 ; historical nowadays & # 187 ;
. It is the stylistic consequence.
e.g. : Millinsonenters
. The misss instantlymake-believe
to be working difficult & # 8230 ; ( we can show the event of the drama before our eyes )
Meanings of thepast tense
with mention topast clip
( Table 3 ) combine two characteristics:
a ) the event / province must take topographic point in the yesteryear with the spread between its completion and the present minute ;
B ) the talker or author must hold in head a definite clip at which the event / province took topographic point ( & # 171 ; last hebdomad, in 1932, several hebdomads ago, etc ) butstylistically
the past tense itself means thedefinite past clip
the forepart door? & # 8211 ; an immediate state of affairs.
in Grees. & # 8211 ; historical statements.
Romawas non built
in a twenty-four hours. & # 8211 ; presupposing.
can be paraphrased
by agencies of& # 171 ; used to & # 187 ;
( transference, heterotaxy, transmittal ) used to populate
e.g. : In those yearss we & # 8211 ; in the counry.
Meanings of thepast tense
with mention to thenowadays
& # 8211 ; the phenomenon& # 171 ; backshift & # 187 ;
( Did you say youhold / had
no money? )
& # 8211 ; theattitudinal yesteryear
you want to see me now? )
& # 8211 ; theconjectural yesteryear
( if-clauses, outlooks & # 8211 ; & # 171 ; I wish Ihad
a memory like yours & # 187 ; . )
To adhere to the chief point from & # 171 ; A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language & # 187 ; it is indispensable to exhibit some facts from chapter& # 171 ; Perfective and progressive Aspect
. & # 187 ;
[ 29 ; 31 ] . The term& # 171 ; facet & # 187 ;
refers to a grammatical class which reflects the manner in which the verb action isregarded and experienced with
T I m vitamin E
. The two aspect buildings of English:perfect tense
can be seen as recognizing a basic contrast if facet between the action viewed ascomplete
( perfect tense )
, and the action viewed asincomplete,
The morphological realisation of tense and syntactic realisation of facet are really closely connected. Quirk R. marks that about 10 % of finite verb phrasesare
& # 8211 ; clip predating whatever clip orientation is signaled by tense or by other elements of the sentence or itscontext
We may now concentrate on the difference between two buildings:
1. State taking up to the present:
e.g. : That househas been
empty for ages. & # 8211 ; the province continues at least up to the present.
californium. : That house was empty for ages.-but now it has been sold.
2. Identifinite events in a period taking up to the present:
of all timebeen
to Florence? & # 8211 ; the indefinite yesteryear.
you go to florence? & # 8211 ; last summer! & # 8211 ; we have to conceive of the definite yesteryear.
3. Habit event ( recurrent ) in a period taking up to the present:
Mr Terryhas Sung
in this choir of all time since he was male child. & # 8211 ; the period identified must go on up to the present.
The diary was published every month from 1850 to 1888. & # 8211 ; the definite yesteryear.
stylistically more frequent inconversations
than in scientific discourse. A count of a big figure of verb buildings has indicated that less so5 % of
verb phrases are progressive, whereas 95 % are fusty [ 32 ; 29 ] .
The significance of the imperfect can be separated into 3 constituents:
1. The occurrence hascontinuance:
Joanis singing good.
2. The occurrence haslimited continuance:
3.Incompletion & # 8211 ;
thehappening is non necessary complete:
the novel yesterday eventide.
to the chapter the progressive facet can be divided into:
1. Stative imperfect:
in the state. & # 8211 ; temporal abode.
californium. : We live in the country.-permanent abode.
2. Event imperfect:
e.g. : The refereeis/was blowing
of whistling. & # 8211 ; repeated blowing.
californium. : The referee slows his whistling. & # 8211 ; merely one clip!
3. Habit progressive:
e.g. : At that clip shewas holding
regular vocalizing lessons.
Whenever Isee her, she& # 8217 ; s
in the garden.
The & # 171 ; temporal frame & # 187 ;
of the present imperfect is usually& # 171 ; now & # 187 ;
,recurrent or fanciful,
inaccordance with the reading of the accustomed, the historical, the fiction significances.
The writers give a piece of information aboutthe perfective imperfect
significance that the characteristics of the imperfect and the perfective facets arecombined
in the same phrase. This job will be debated by Ukrainian and Russian scientists.
R. Quirk and his squad give a batch of information about clip, tense and facet ; the tabular arraies in which English verbs are divided into stative and dynamic types ; hard subject as & # 171 ; facet & # 187 ; is presented in clear and limpid linguistic communication. There are some jobs which are debated up to now, for illustration, & # 171 ; the world of the perfective imperfect & # 187 ; .
1.3 The analysis of the stylistic potency of tense-aspect verbal signifiers in modern English by place linguists
[ 3 ; 30 ] is awell-known Ukrainian ( Kiev ) bookman who specialized in the survey of English linguistic communication and wrote two monographs:
1. The Essays on Stylistic Grammar of Modern English ( 1976 ) [ 3 ]
2. Modern English Grammar ( 1976 ) [ 30 ]
These monographs introduce the consequences of N.N. Rayevska & # 8217 ; s philological observations which convey theoretical grammar jobs of verbal system and their stylistic possibilities and potencies. All these characteristics are really utile for penetration into author ‘s context and apprehension of their creative persons ‘ purposes. InModern English Grammar
N.N. Rayevska accentuates:
& # 171 ; A major inquiry in larning the grammar of the English verb is hence to look for the difference of distributionassorted context, liguistic or situational, where each verb & # 8211 ; signifier occurs & # 187 ;
[ 30 ; 137 ] . The consequence harmonizing to these points can be seen inTable 4 & # 8211 ; 8.
The consequences harmonizing to the functional and semantic heterotaxies can be seen inTables 9 & # 8211 ; 10.
Some words about trabsposition itself.
is a divergense between the traditional use of a impersonal word and its situational( stylistic )
Transposition of verbs
is more varied than other parts of address. It is explained by a greater figure of grammatical classs the significances of which may be transposed. One of curious characteristics of English tense signifiers is theirpolysemantism:
thesame signifier may recognize assorted significances in spoken English and other manners.
Deviation from the general significance makes verbsstylistically coloured
Twotypes of heterotaxy are presented in our tabular array:functional and semantic & # 8211 ;
whereinherent resources and devices of & # 8211 ; English verbs create and set up a batch of elusive meaningful nicetiesby agencies of Morphology.
throws light upon the nature of the functional and semantic peripheral field of the verbal voice and Markss off it in her diagram where paradigmatic verbal signifiers and linguistic communication units of the other degrees are unified and consolidated together in the functional-semantic field of the voices hip. As invention we have completed Table 11& # 171 ; The
Stylistic Potential of Peripheral Elements of the Passive Voice in Modern Enflish & # 187 ;
and intend that it will enrich the verbal system and aid and excite pupils & # 8217 ; intensification of its use in the frames of Theoretical English Grammar.
Showing the functional-semantic field of theaspectual system of the English Verb
the writer lines down the categores of the facet and tense as organically correlated:the
signifier of the facet is the signifier of the tense
( Asin Quirk & # 8217 ; s system ) but she means there are two types of the facet in English Grammar which are itroduced asthe resistances:
l. the common facet
( speaks, spoke, will talk ) ;
2. the uninterrupted
( is talking, was talking )
N.N. Rayevska puts frontward several interesting and stimulating thoughts for the farther philological observations that harmonizing to her point of position are really productive and prospective:
1. Development of grammat co-ideomatical constructions.
2. Morphologic correlativities of interlevel units and inclusion them in the peripheral field of verbal signifiers.
3. The Phrasiological System in its integrity with garammatical operation.
4. Paculiarities of lexical combinability and realisation of tense-aspect signifiers in the community of their syntactical constructions and others ( a batch of thoughts! )
The field arragement of tense-aspect: system for philological observations expands the frames of the traditional English Grammar and helps to uncover a batch. of stylistic colorss and their sunglassess.
In her bend the writer ofStylistics of Modern English
( Stylistic Decoding ) ,I.V. Arnold
& # 171 ; Stylistic potency is possibility to addan idiomatic power
to the linguistic communication and express assorted elusive differentiations of ideas and significances & # 187 ; . [ 4, 124 ]
The writer divides heterotaxy into two types and distribute this stuff into two groups,Table 1.4
that have been complited by our squad as ocular stuff for studatns:
1. Transposition with emotional expressiveness.
2. Transposition with functional-stylistic character.
In our practical part-the 2nd portion of our paper & # 8211 ; we give a batch of illustrations from original literature utilizing this tabular array and showing some intensions of tense-aspect systemconveyed by verbal signifiers:
& # 8211 ; historical presence ;
– uninterrupted verbal signifiers ;
& # 8211 ; echo-questions ;
& # 8211 ; popular linguistic communication ;
& # 8211 ; modal verbs, atoms, parlances ;
& # 8211 ; repeats of grammar signifiers ;
& # 8211 ; archaic verbal signifiers.
Two types of heterotaxy [ Table 1.4 ] described by I.V. Arnold are used in our practical portion with the purpose to spread out the frames of their use as obvious and visuial illustrations from English original literature.
in his bookFundamentalss of English Stylistics
( lines down that & # 171 ; Stylistic Morphology, both paradigmatic and syntagmatic, has non yet been given full attending, particularly with respect to English that has really few inflexions, and most grammatical significances are expressedanalytically & # 187 ; .
[ 33 ; 84 ] The writer puts in the head the jobs ofsynonymity and heterotaxy:
& # 8211 ; variableness of verbal signifiers ;
& # 8211 ; morphological difference between verbal signifiers ;
& # 8211 ; get rid ofing the morphlogical distinctions between Subjunctive II of the verb& # 171 ; to be & # 187 ;
and thepast declarative mood ;
& # 8211 ; & # 171 ; ill-formed & # 187 ; use of verbal signifiers ;
& # 8211 ; & # 171 ; praesens historicum & # 187 ; and others.
Y.M. Skrebnev representsSyntagmatic and Paradigmatic Morphology
as agencies of the sylistic stocks. The writer treats practically all the necessities of stylistics, gives legion samples of text analysis, teaches the pupils to construe and happen equal verbal history for stylistic feelings.
Satisfactory consequences in the philological preparation of pupils can be achieved merely on status that pupils have steadfastly, mastered the basic rules if every lingual disciplin,stylistics included.
In the following monograph& # 171 ; English Stylistics & # 187 ;
written byA.N. Morokhovskei
it is accentuated that Stylistics is a synthetico & # 8211 ; linguisitic topic and the linguistic communication is researched as the system with a batch of elements that united into:
1. Expression means on all lingual degrees.
2. STYLISTIC DEVICES ON ALL COLLOQUIAL LEVELS.
3. Functional correlativities with a society and environment.
In chapter & # 171 ; Stylistic use of the verbal agencies
& # 187 ; the writer underscores that all stylistic possibilities of English verbs are really rich if we take into history a assortment of verbal signifiers vebals and their scope of significances, touchs and niceties. The writer considers that the tense-aspect signifiers can be presented in the contexts by the ways of doing and making their syntactic correlativities ( intercommunications ) between signifiers, constructions, buildings and grammar classs. And it is non disputed because the & # 8211 ;verbal formations and & # 187 ; arragements are the chief dynamic agencies and devices of stylistic looks in
literary, puplicistic and conversational manners.
In this monograph these are a batch of interesting facts from different intensions in the grammatical, semantic and polysemous realizations.
e.g. Douglas: Cris is making all right, Basil.
Greff: Is that true?Are
all right, Cris?
In the inquiry we can catch of feel either ironic or warm modulation but non continuance expressed by the uninterrupted tense. The signifiers of the present indefinite and present uninterrupted are used for the transmittal of facts, actions, events which have illsion of the Result but non continuance as in followers:
e.g. : Thankss for breakfast. I & # 8217 ; mcatching
the train place. We can mart ; that the mode of the duty is shown by agencies of the uninterrupted tense.
1. The classs of the Englishvoice
besides can be in the function of stylistic agencies and devices:
e.g. : Since to love is betterto be loved
. It is the construction with antithesis.
2. e.g. : Idid assist
& # 171 ; did & # 187 ;
is & # 171 ; still, however, nevertheless & # 187 ; .
e.g. : Theydid travel
& # 171 ; did & # 187 ; is & # 171 ;the last, eventually
, in the terminal & # 187 ; .
The emphasized& # 171 ; DO & # 187 ;
is a strong stylistic characteristic that in its correlativity with the verbal predicate creats the emphasized look.
3. Implicit agent in scientific manner is used in the debut of the facts.
e.g. : It is understood / mentioned / assumed / believed / known & # 8230 ;
For pupils we have completed two tabular arraies ( 13,14 ) with interesting facts and illustrations:
& # 8211 ; how to utilize stylistic potency of the Imperetive temper ;
& # 8211 ; semantic and stylistic distinctive features expressed by the signifiers of the Subjunctive temper.
In monographStylistics of English Language
the writers show that the diapason of stylistic devices is really high. We have marked merely s some of them but really expressive classs of clip, voice and temper. All these agencies can be used merely in context. We consider that the topic & # 171 ; The Theory of Context & # 187 ; must be included in the course of study for pupils from the foriegn linguistic communication modules. Our tabular arraies ( 13 & # 8211 ; 14 ) which were completed for pupils as HOs on the Theoretical Grammar will assist them to gain this garammatical stuff in practical frames.
In his really scientific monograph& # 171 ; Modification of Verbal Forms in Modern English & # 187 ; A.I. Dorodnyh
analises a batch of plants written by outstanding philologues, native and foreign, and gives his ain system of English verb, as follows:
1. Class of clip: Past Nonpast
was working is working
2. Class of impermanent retrospectiveness:
has worked plants
had worked worked
will hold worked will work
has been working is working
3. Class of impermanent perspectiveness:
will work plants
would work worked
will hold worked have/has worked
will be working is working
The writer & # 8217 ; s verbal system is really single and interesting for those pupils and instructors who wants to spread out their scientific accomplishments in Philological, sphere and go on to research some discussible jobs, viz. :
l. What is the chief factor of the development in the verbal system that can be presented in the societal community?
2. Is there the hereafter class or future tense?
Can you as a instructor discovery more illustrations to reason your finds and explicate them to pupils more popularly so in the monograph by A.I. Dorodnyh, and others.
in hisA Course in Theoretical English Grammar
& # 171 ; Language is agencies of organizing and hive awaying thoughts as contemplations of world and interchanging them in the procedure of human intercourse. Language is societal by nature: it is inseparably connected with the people who are its Godheads and users ; it grows and develops together with development society & # 187 ; .
Grammatical clip, or tense, is one of the typical maps of the finite verb. The writer depicting the present tense as opposed to the past tense accentuates the stylistic characteristics and distinctive features in the lingual fortunes, specifically & # 171 ; the historic nowadays & # 187 ; ,
If we say, & # 171 ; Two plus twomakes
four & # 187 ; , the lingual deduction of it is & # 171 ; ever ; at the minute of address & # 187 ; .
If we say, & # 171 ; I ne’ertake
his advise & # 187 ; , we mean & # 171 ; at the present clip & # 187 ; .
If we say & # 171 ; In our millenary societal formationsalteration
quicker so in the old periods of adult male ‘s history & # 8217 ; , the lingual, temporal content of it is & # 171 ; in our millenary including the minute of address & # 187 ; & # 8230 ; Here worthy of note are vocalizations where the significance of the past tense stands in contrast with the significance of some adverbial phrase mentioning the event to the present minute.
The looking lingual paradox
of such instances consists precisely in the fact that their two-type indicants of clip, oneverbal-grammatical
, and oneadverbal-lexical
, approach the same event from two opposite angles.It is the transpositional usage of the present tense with the past adverbials
, either included in the utterence as such, or expressed in its contectual environment. The stylistic intent of this heterotaxy, known under the name of the& # 171 ; historical nowadays & # 187 ;
is to make a graphic image of the event reflected in the vocalization.
e.g. : Then heturned
the corner, and what do you believehappens next
cipher else than Mr. Greggs accompanied by his private secretary!
The & # 171 ; historical nowadays & # 187 ; will be included in our practical portion that is why we want to depict this topic in inside informations.
The Historical Present
The English & # 171 ; historical nowadays & # 187 ; is normally described as a manner of doingstorytelling events more vivid.
e.g. : Last dark Blackie ( cat )comes
with this immense dead rat in her oral cavity and drops it right at ray pess.
These utterence has an adverbial of clip& # 171 ; last dark & # 187 ;
set uping the clip of the event in theyesteryear
, while the actions are described in the present tense. The existent clip is distant from the clip of utterence, but the actions described are presented as if they coincide with the clip of the utterence.
e.g. : My parentsworked
in the field all twenty-four hours. And Iwork
in the Fieldss all twenty-four hours like them & # 8230 ;
The alleged & # 171 ; historical nowadays & # 187 ; is characteristic of popularnarrative manner
( or fictional nowadays or fictional narration ) . In Older English, the simple nowadays was used more widely with mention to a present event which would now be described by usage of the present imperfect ( durative ) :
e.g. : I go = I & # 8217 ; m traveling.
The & # 171 ; historical nowadays & # 187 ; describes the yesteryear as if it is go oning now ; it conveys something of thedramatic immediateness
of an eye-witness history.
e.g. : I couldn & # 8217 ; t believe it! Merely as wearrived
me on the dorsum as if we & # 8217 ; re life-long friends. & # 171 ; Come on, old buddy & # 187 ; , hesays
. Let me purchase you a drink! I & # 8217 ; m stating you, I about fainted on the topographic point & # 187 ; .
A really different usage of the present tense in mention to the yesteryear is that found withverbs of communicating
e.g. : The 10 o & # 8217 ; clock intelligencesays
that there ‘s to be storm. Such verbs include besides verbs likeunderstand,
which refer to the receptive terminal of the communicating procedure.
e.g. : Ihear
that hapless Mr. Simpsonhas gone
These sentences would besides be acceptable with the simple yesteryear or present perfective, butthe deduction of the present tense seems to be that although the communicating event took topographic point in the yesteryear, its consequence & # 8211 ; the information communicated & # 8211 ; is still operate.
e.g. : The Book of Genesisspeaks
of the awful destiny of Sodom and Gomorrah.
Therefore, although the Book of Genesis wsa written 1000s old ages ago, it still & # 171 ; sreaks & # 187 ; to us at the present. The impression that the yesteryear can stay in the nowadays besides explains the optional usage of the present tense in sentences reffering to authors, composers, creative persons, etc. , and their extant plants.
e.g. In The Brothers Karamazov, Dostoevskydraws/drew
his characters from beginnings deep in the Russian psyche.
It is something more than a figure of address to propose that writer is still able to talk to us through his plants.
The present tense can even be used, without regard to any patticular work, for general artistic word picture of the writer, but biographical inside informations of the creative person ‘s life must be usually reported through the past tense. Hence there is an interesting contrast between:
e.g. : Murasakiwrite/wrote
of life in 11th century Japan.
californium: Murasakiwrote in 11th century Japan
The simple nowadays
is normally used inNewspaper Headlines
e.g. : & # 171 ; NO SELL-OUT & # 187 ; SAYS P.M.
Trade UNIONS BACK MERGER
There is a close connexion between the & # 171 ; historical nowadays & # 187 ; of above, and the simple nowadays as used in the& # 171 ; Fictional narrative & # 187 ;
. The lone difference is that whereas the events narrated by agencies of the & # 171 ; historical nowadays & # 187 ; areReal
, those narrated by the& # 171 ; fictional historical nowadays & # 187 ;
This is stylistically marked in contrast to the normal convention of the past tense forstore-telling.
e.g. : The crowddroves
around the gateway, andseethes
with delighted expectancy ; exhilarationgrows
, as all of a sudden their hero makes his entryway & # 8230 ;
A particular exclusion in the usage of the present tense in phase way.
e.g. : Millinsonenters
. The misss instantlymake-believe
to be working difficult. Williamassures
a businesslike air, picks up two booklets, andmakes for
Here the present tense is used by convention, as if to stand for the thought that events of the drama are being performed before our eyes as we read the book.
In his monographyM.Y. Blokh
debates a point how to utilizeshall or will future and
Markss & # 171 ; The position thatshall
retain their modal significances in all their utilizations was defended by such a recognized authorization on English grammar of the older coevals of the 20th century linguists asO. Jespersen
. In our times, quite a few bookmans, among them the replacements of Descriptive Linguistics, see these verbs as portion of the general set of average verbs, & # 171 ; modal auxiliaries & # 187 ; , showing the significances of capableness, chance, permission, duty, and the similar & # 187 ; .
The average nature of the & # 171 ; shall/will + Infinitive & # 187 ; combinations can be shown by agencies of tantamount substitutions
e.g. : He who does non work neithershall
californium. : He who does non workmust non eat
As respects the 2nd question-thefacet
of the verb in modern English & # 8211 ;M.Y. Blokh
choices up two chief discrepancies: the uninterrupted and the perfect tense.
l. The uninterrupted signifiers are aspective because reflecting the built-in character of the procedure named by verb, they do non, and can non, denote the timing of the procedure. Theresistance
representing the corresponding class is effected between theuninterrupted
2. The true nature of theperfect is temporal facet
reflected in its ain resistance, which can non be reduced to any other resistances. The categorial member opposed to the perfect will be named& # 171 ; progressive or non-perfect & # 187 ;
The writer underlines that the aspective significances can be inbuilt in the semantic construction of the verb and, on the other manus, the aspective significances can besides be represented in variable grammatical signifiers and classs. At this point of our consideration, we should differ thecategorial nomenclature
andthe definitions of classs
in normal usage, can non be represented twice in one and the same word-form. The built-in verb-form can non expose at one time more so one look of each of recognized verbal classs, though it does give a representive look to all the verbal classs taken together through the corresponding obligatory featuring. So in the verbal system of English there aretwo temporal classs:
& # 8211 ;the past tense
as a direct retrospective rating of the clip of the procedure ;
& # 8211 ;the hereafter tense
& # 8211 ; the timing of % he procedure in a prospective rating.
There are two aspective classs:
& # 8211 ; the uninterrupted facet ;
& # 8211 ; the perfect facet.
N.Y. Blokh describes the aspective classs backed on the plants of H. Sweet and O. Jespersen.
On the land that aspective class is constituted by the resistance of the uninterrupted signifiers of the verb to the non-continuous signifiers, they present some sentences withwhile-clauses:
1. While Iwas typing,
Mary and Tomwere chew the fating
in the adjoining room.
2. While Ityped
, Mary and Tom were chew the fating in the adjoining room.
3. While Iwas typing
, Wary and Tomchatted
in the adjoining room.
4. While Ityped
in the adjoining room.
We have to experience the difference in semantic intensions. The meaningful difference consists precisely in the categorial semantics of the indefinite and comtinuous: while the latter shows the action in the really procedure of its realisation, the former points it out as a mere fact & # 8230 ; Thestylistic potency
of the uninterrupted facet is in its possibility to make a figure of actions traveling on at the same time in descriptions of scenes implied by thenarrative
e.g. : Standing on the chair, I could see in through the barred window into the hall of the Ayuntamiento and in there itwas
as ithad been
before. The priestwas standing
, and those who were leftwere kneeling
in a half circle around him and theywere
. Pablowas sitting
on the large tabular array in forepart of the Mayor ‘s chair with his scattergun slung over his back. & # 187 ;
( E. Hemingway. , p. 154 )
In hisA Course in Theoretical English Grammar M.Y. Blakh
describes and explains the class ofretrospective coordination
( the perfect facet ) that has been interpreted in lingual literature in four different ways. InTable 15 & # 171 ; The Perfect Aspect & # 187 ;
( The History of the Problem ) we present a piece of information about the writers, foreign and native ) , who presented the perfect facet as a job. We present 5 subdivisions harmonizing to the ways of the grammatical readings:
1. & # 171 ; The tense position & # 187 ; .
2. & # 171 ; The facet position & # 187 ; .
3. & # 171 ; The tense-aspect blend position & # 187 ; .
4. & # 171 ; The clip correlativity position & # 187 ; .
5. & # 171 ; The rigorous categorial position & # 187 ; by M.Y. Blokh.
This tabular array is really convenient for pupils who wants to acquire post-graduated instruction and go on their philological observations in the frames of Theoretical English Grammar.
Grammatical stuff from the text edition written by M.Y. Blokh is really ocular and inportant for pupils. There is no uncertainty that its legion peculiar propeties, every bit good as its cardinal qualities as a whole, will be further exposed, clarified in the class of continued lingual research.
in her book& # 171 ; Necessities of English Morphlogy & # 187 ;
underscores that the points selected for survey in this book represent the mostproblematic parts of English Morphology.
It concerns, foremost of all, the grammatical classs of theverb.
The writer marks that & # 171 ; the verb is a two-face Janus & # 187 ; : when it is viewed as the bearer of some generalized, abstract grammatical significance, it belongs to morphology ; when it is viewed from the point of position of the place it occupies in relation to different word-classes, it belongs to syntax. Taking into history all these we can happen a batch of grounds to show & # 171 ; the 3rd face of our Janus-verb & # 187 ; & # 8211 ;stylistic characteristics
that are included in our research. The writer in chapter IV & # 171 ; The General Organization of Morphlogical Forms & # 187 ; nowadayss & # 171 ; Structural1 Principles of Organization & # 187 ; & # 8211 ; The Macrosystem of the English Verb & # 187 ; , organized in the tabular array( Table 16 )
. Bing guided by Ukrainian, Russian, American and European linguistic schools & # 8211 ; A. Hill, B. Strangle, O. Jespersen, L. Barkhudarov, G. CURME, G.N. Vorontsova and others & # 8211 ; I.B. Khlebnikova expoands the characteristic characteristics of an analitical signifiers of English verb. They are nine. Between them we can happen the descriptions of:
– an subsidiary as a verb which has no lexical significance of its plus infinitive, participle I, II ;
– a collocations as indivisible in grammatical sense, though its constituents are separate words ; it is idiomatic in grammar sense ;
– aide verbs realized the & # 171 ; present-past & # 187 ; duality:
done & # 8211 ;had
talking & # 8211 ;was
speech production ;
make & # 8211 ;should
– verb as the whole macrosystem and in the cardinal & # 8211 ;microsystem of tense-aspect
– the abbreviation of the subsidiary constituent in conversational address:
I & # 8217 ; ve done it, and etc.
The writer presents the Microsystem and defines that the typical characteristics of tense comes foremost since it is tense, and non aspect, that presents the frame of the system, though sentiments may differ on this mark ( californium. : traditional Russian term & # 171 ; aspect-tense system of Russian verb & # 187 ; ) .
In her arguments with O. Jespersen who denied the being of future tense as a grammatical tense in English and it was repeated in more modern publications ( By Barkhudarov, 1975 ) the writer writes & # 171 ; the most exact estimate of the existent, fanciful clip will be the division intoyesteryear, present and future,
if the lingual stuffadmits such a distinction
& # 187 ; .
The paradigm of tense-aspect in English, from the point of the writer ‘s position, is based upon temporal divisions ( both proper and comparative ) , organizing a frame into which aspect distinction is included within the scope of different temporal points. Particular attending was given to perfectnees.
is the most abiding and indispensable class, moving in all microsystems ( Table 17 ) .
of the present, past and future tenses she marks that thepresent tense
is widely used innarratives
taking topographic point within the domain of the minute of address, particularly in dramas and duologues ; & # 171 ; historical nowadays & # 187 ; ; lasting qualities, etc. The chief domain of the usage of thepast tense
is the narrative in the yesteryear, the representation of a concatenation of events which happened before the present ‘ clip. The complete correspondence of the hereafter I and the hereafter 11 and their purely grammatical significance is exhibited an any contexts. The undermentioned sentences can be represented by both future tenses.
e.g. : Then I will drive this pilum through you.
( He said he would drive that pikum through him ) .
I shall non trouble oneself about them.
( He said he would non trouble oneself about them ) .
We would give the descriptions of some footings harmonizing to I.B. Khlebnikova:
& # 8211 ; the transference of somepast actions
into the scope of the another axis of orientation & # 8211 ;the present tense
which is the initual point of temporal resistance.
& # 8211 ; thefuture action
is expressed by thepresent Indefinite or Continuous
& # 8211 ; stand for an event on the plane of content of morphological signifiers which is reflected on the plane oflook
e.g. : Mr. X arrives at London airdrometomorrow
the miss to Londonfollowing hebdomad
( neutralisation )
The writer gives definitions of abstract grammatical classs which find look in the tense-aspect microsystem ( active ) . There are three in figure:tense, temporal relativity ( perfect-ness ) and aspect ( durative )
We agree with the writer that & # 171 ; the points selected for survey here represent the most problematic parts of morphology. It concerns, foremost of all, the grammatical classs of the verb & # 187 ; . Before showing some facts at talk a instructor have to reassign them harmonizing to the pupil ‘s apprehension.
Stylistic potency of tense-aspect verbal signifiers can be presented merely in conditions of an vocalization. An vocalization is expressed by agencies of words and sentences.I.P. Verkhowskaya in her monograph & # 171 ; Tense-Aspect signifiers in English Complexs Sentence & # 187 ;
conveys some consequences of her research work in the frames of the complex sentences ( 18290 illustrations ) . The writer nowadayss three tenses:Present, Past, Future Indefinite
and shows how to utilize them harmonizing to the Sequences of Tenses. She pays her particular attending to how to utilize the Present and Past Perfect and completes specific making in the frames of the complex sentence.
At the same clip of treatment on a inquiry about stylistic potency of tense-aspect verbal signifiers in Modern English we, the instructors, have to spread out the pupils & # 8217 ; skill in the domain of grammatical use of these signifiers in vocalizations. In this instance we can arouse a batch of illustrations given by I.P. Verkhovskaya in her monograph.