In 2008, as a consequence from Global Economic crisis, Cambodia experienced surging in monetary values, particularly of fuels and nutrient, with rising prices rate up to 20 per centum. This rising prices was chiefly caused by the universe and local demand while the supply was more dearly-won because of the increasing in fuels costs. This affected Kampuchean economic system by supplying both negative impacts on the consumers and chances for some manufacturers to gain more.
This essay will supply the history of the rising prices in Cambodia in term of high nutrient monetary values and the instance in the old yearss. It will concentrate on the rising prices of the Ancient Rome. Get downing from the causes of the rising prices, this essay will concentrate next on the effects and the actions responded by the authoritiess of each authoritiess at their several times. Following, it will show some recognitions comparing the two rising prices instances. Does the old experience reflect the recent instance?
Crisis of the Third Century
The Crisis of the Third Century was a period of barbaric invasion, civil war, and economic crisis happened in Rome. The crisis began when Emperor Alexander Severus ( 193-235 A.D. ) was killed by his ain military personnels. In the undermentioned old ages, the imperium fell into civil war. Twenty six different emperors ascended the throne between 234 A.D. and 284 A.D. All the emperors at that clip were soldiers and they came to the throne by military putschs. Some of them held power for merely a few months. Merely one of them died peacefully and the others were either killed or died by force. In 284 A.D. , The crisis ended with the Ascension and reform of Emperor Diocletian.
Devaluation of Coinage
During the Third Century Crisis, the authorization of Rome was weakened. The jurisprudence and order declined. Besides, civil wars disrupted commercialism in the metropoliss. The imperium imported more goods than they exported. Rome spent a batch of money for the imported goods. To increase supply of money and to protect their topics, emperors continued to publish new coins by cut downing sum of gold content in mintage. The decrease of gold led to devaluate the coins. When the weights of gold content in coins were reduced, the merchandisers demanded more new coins for the same merchandise. This raised monetary values up unusually.
Additions in Outgos
In order to protect the throne, the emperors tried to expanse figure of their military personnels. Harmonizing to Peden ( 1984 ) , the figure was doubled in size from the clip of Augustus to Diocletian. In add-on, non merely the figure of military personnels increased, but besides their wage rose dramatically. Als, the payment rose from 225 denarii, a Ag coin, during the clip of Augustus ( 27 B.C. – 14 A.D. ) to 750 denarii in the clip of Caracalla ( 198 – 217 A.D. ) .
Furthermore, the disposal of the imperium had grown tremendously. During the reign of Diocletian, he divided the imperium into a western and eastern half. He straight controlled the eastern portion and he gave the regulation of the western to one of his co-workers. Each half of imperiums anyhow slipped into two prefectures ‘ control. The figure of civil retainer rose from one to four. Hence, the disbursal of the imperiums over its disposals was highly tremendous that the imperium no long had money to back up these immense sweeps. In order to prolong itself, the authorities started the adulteration of mintages and the reform of the revenue enhancements aggregation
Cambodia – Cause of Rising Food Monetary values
In 2008, as a net importation state, Cambodia experienced lifting nutrient monetary values which had both negative and positive for the people. The lifting monetary value closely related to the moving ridge of planetary nutrient monetary values drive by several factors including rapid addition in demand, low planetary stock and high oil monetary values.
Between 2005 and 2007, the harvest outputs in the universe bring forthing countries were below the mean degree and they did non response to the universe demand of the emerging states. For illustration, the universe cereal end product in 2007 was merely 3 % larger than in 2005 while there was a diminution in overall oil-rich seed end product. Furthermore, the strong planetary demand could be seen as the addition in bio-fuel production while many sorts of grains and vegetable oil were needed. For blink of an eye, the demand of wheat and coarse grew about twice ( Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development [ OECD ] , 2008 ) .
The addition in oil monetary value besides leads to the lifting in nutrient monetary value. Cambodia is one of the net oil importing state. Cambodia imports 100 per centum of its oil for transit and other agencies of agricultural production such as generators, H2O pump or irrigation system. The addition cost of agencies production raised up the nutrient monetary value tremendously. In 2003, the monetary value of oil in Phnom Penh was at its high 5,450 riel or $ 1.36 per liter. The consequence was shown as the monetary value of all assortments of rice jumped to 100 per centum from 2007 to 2008. Meat monetary values increased by 50-70 per centum while fist and veggie rose by 20-30 per centum ( Cambodia ‘s Leading Independent Development Policy Research Institute [ CDRI ] , 2008 )
In Ancient Rome, the rising prices chiefly happened because of the civil war and the excess supply of money during adulteration of currency. However, the instance of lifting in monetary values in Cambodia was due to the planetary demand and the deficiency of supply.
The trade web was cut off. The widespread of civil wars made it no longer safe for bargainers and merchandisers any longer. The exchange of goods was besides hard with the adulterate currency. Landowners, no longer able to export their harvests over long distances, therefore, they began to bring forthing nutrient for local swap. They turned to fabricate fewer sums of goods locally, therefore get downing the self-sufficing. This led to shortage of nutrient. Many common free people of the Rome metropoliss began to travel out into the countryside in hunt for nutrient and better protection. Later on, since the money was wholly worthless, the trade was done through swap and the economic activities were in dead end.
Freedom of Peoples
The major effect of Roman rising prices was the autonomy of people and their trading freedom. The authorities followed a policy of free trade and low restraints on commercialism. But at this clip, under the force per unit area of economic jobs, the authorities started to beef up their policy in which people were losing their freedom. The merchandisers and the craftsmans now were compelled to present their merchandises to the Empire.
The little and in-between landowning known as decurions were forcibly assigned a undertaking of aggregation revenue enhancements for the Empire. They faced a danger in implementing the undertaking as it was difficult to roll up equal revenue enhancements for the Empire during the crisis. Hence, they sometimes had to pay out their ain money. When the crisis continued without its terminal, the decurions no longer wanted to make the occupations. They started to go forth their lands and flight to wherever safe and free.
The provincials, known as the coloni, were lessees and a free category. They were now under the same force per unit areas as decurions. They were forced to adhere to the dirt. Consequently, they besides began to travel off seeking to happen better chances and businesss.
In the contrary, the high monetary value did non endure much the regulations, but merely the swayers. The authorities of the Empire found the manner to protect itself and its topics from the crisis. The soldiers and civil retainers enjoyed the benefits of the wages and fillip in gold criterion which remained stable in monetary value whereas all mintages became progressively worthless.
Cambodia – Consequence of Rising Food Monetary values
High nutrient monetary values had both negative impacts on consumers and positives impact on manufacturers. Both impacts vary harmonizing to economic position. The hapless were affected the most. Harmonizing to the study study from Cambodia ‘s Leading Independent Development Policy Research Institute ( CDRI, 2008 ) , the poorest 40 per centum of the population spend 70 per centum of their incomes on nutrient. They live “ from manus to oral cavity ” by utilizing their earn USD2-3 per twenty-four hours to purchase rice and other necessary nutrient.
When the monetary value rose up, the hapless no longer had adequate money to pay for household disbursal. They started to cut down nutrient ingestion and hence consequence in hapless nutritionary consumption. Some of them had to borrow money to last and they fell in debt that was hard to retrieve. Some had to work harder to gain adequate income to purchase nutrients. Indeed, some who was unemployed were hit hardest by high nutrient monetary values.
When they could non gain plenty, they had to take their kids out of schools. The grounds for this were first to cut down some disbursals over their kids and second to acquire some aid from kids to work for them. Therefore, the school drop-out job was increased. Harmonizing to the same beginning, 13 per centum of households had kids dropping out of school in January 2008 and 22 per centum in June 2008.
On the bright side, the high nutrient monetary value besides provided some positive impact. First, husbandmans received some benefits from the addition of rice monetary values. They could sell their excess sum of rice to market in higher monetary values. The mean monetary value of rice in May 2008 ranged between 1150 to 1500 riels per kg compared to 500 to 900 riels in 2007. However, non all rural occupants could bring forth a excess of rice for sale. For blink of an eye, merely about 34 per centum of families could sell their excess of rice to the market because of the 21 per centum else were landless and another 45 per centum were land hapless ( Kampuchean Development Research Institute [ CDRI ] , 2008 ) . Second, the high monetary values besides encouraged the husbandmans to increase their productions. As the monetary value of rice was higher, the husbandmans would cultivate their land instead than go forthing it free or leasing it. However the husbandmans were besides faced with lifting input costs such as fertilisers, insect powders, and pesticides. The monetary values for fertiliser rose by about 150 per centum ( Oxfam, 2008 ) .
The effects of the rising prices of both instances are similar. All instances have both positive and negative impacts merely merely to whom they concerns. In both instances, the negative impact was happened to the hapless, while less negative or positive impacts were in manus of the wealths.
Actions of the Government
In 284 A.D. , Diocletian ruled the Empire. He introduced new jurisprudence to mend the harm done in the 3rd century. First, Diocletian recognized that the imperium and its crisis were excessively great for him to manage. Therefore, as mentioned above, Diocletian decentralized the disposal of the Empire and divided the imperium into two parts. For all the parts, Diocletain reorganized the construction of disposal and he eventually gained most power over the imperium. Second, Diocletian began to cover with the economic system instability by publishing the celebrated Edict on Prices. This Edict was the reform of the control of currency, monetary values and rewards. Finally, Diocletian demanded a standardisation of revenue enhancements aggregation.
Regarded to the control of currency, Diocletian started to raise the weight of the gold mintage which was continued to corrupt by old emperors. He issued new silvered mintages in order to react to the demand for coins in the market place. However, this reform worked merely for less than a decennary. Then, the new silvered mintage lost its monetary values. This reform did non be able to halt the rising prices.
Regarded to the control of monetary values and rewards, Diocletian fixed the rewards and monetary values of goods, services and other trade goods as a individual criterion monetary value for all the states in the imperium. This resulted imbalance between different states as the cost of populating varied from a state to anthers. For illustration, Peden ( 1984 ) mentioned that Egypt had the lowest cost of life ; Palestine had a cost of populating twice that of Egyptian ; and Rome had a cost of populating twice that of Palestine. Thus, Egyptian was non affected by the Edict. In the contrary, it was in Rome that the maximal monetary value was lower than the market monetary value. The consequence was riots in the streets, disappearing of goods when bargainers began to conceal their goods ; eventually, this reform even increased greater in monetary values.
In term of revenue enhancement, it was different from a state to another. After failed to command the currency, he started to reform system of revenue enhancement. He demanded standardisation in order to roll up revenue enhancements easier. The Empire, by this clip, took the revenue enhancements in both signifier of coin and partially in sort from a unit of productiveness which included either affluent landholder or group of little landholders as a unit. But the sum of revenue enhancements collected was non fixed and it varied from clip to clip depend on the demand of the imperium. Unfortunately, the new system was really rigorous. It did non take in to account the varied agricultural crop that depended on season to season. Indeed, no 1 could be excused for non supplying adequate revenue enhancements on clip.
In respond to this heavy revenue enhancement, people started to protect themselves by halting all sort of long-run loan. They started to go forth their occupations, their places, and their societal position. Seriously, when people tried to acquire out of this they were by jurisprudence compelled to stay in the business that they were in. The businesss now were familial. The penalty to who against the jurisprudence was by decease.
Finally, Diocletian had failed to forestall rising prices – it is non known precisely how long the Edict remained in force. Indeed, trade has been reduced to barter and the in-between category was about destroyed. Since money was completed undependable, he devised a system of payments in sort. This revenue enhancement reform has bound the lower categories to the dirt and made them effectual helot. The failure of the Edict and reform of currency led to a return to more instability of economic system and by A.D 306 the procedure of the currency adulteration had begun once more under following emperor.
To cover with the high nutrient monetary values, authorities and givers worked closely together. First, the Kampuchean authorities had spent $ 10million dollars to hike province rice militias. This allowed the sale of subsidised rice through Green Trade, a province owned company, and has helped to maintain domestic monetary values down. Second, the Kampuchean authorities had increased the wages of civil retainers by 20 per centum, in an effort to partly counter the loss of buying power caused by higher nutrient monetary value. Textile workers and instructors received smaller pay addition of 6 per centum and 10 per centum severally. Third, the authorities responded to the high rice monetary values by seting a impermanent action to censor the export of rice from 23 March and 23 May 2008. This increased the internal stocks of rice. Consequently, the consequence was the decrease the monetary value by 10 per centum instantly ( Cambodia ‘s Leading Independent Development Policy Research Institute [ CDRI ] , 2008 ) . In the same clip, the authorities decided to duplicate the private bank modesty from 8 per centum to 16 per centum. This meant to cut down the excess of hard currency and to convey up its monetary values. Last, in October 8, 2008, the Asian Development Bank provided $ 35 million to the authorities for exigency assistance. The contribution was used to supply free rice, seed and fertiliser to 500,000 Cambodians, the poorest of the hapless among the state ‘s 14 million people ( “ Cambodia gets $ 35 million in exigency foodA assistance ” , 2008 ) .
In the old yearss, it was the authorities entirely which was responsible to empire ‘s jobs. The solutions were depended on the outlook of the emperor whether he is justness to the mass of the people or to merely their topics. However, in the present twenty-four hours, the authorities and non authorities organisations works closely together to keep and reconstruct peace and development.
Inflation is an out of control economic job concerned by all states if their authoritiess do non take attention of it. It provides a difficult clip for the mass of population. The authorities plays a major function to response to the high monetary values. The determination of the authorities determines the hereafter of every a individual of life. Indeed, the responds to the rising prices by the authorities in the modern times and in Ancient Rome are the same.