An enquiry on the phenomenal motion in China known as Falun Gong needs to be seen in the context by which it is practiced and culturally grounded. Like a unsighted adult male depicting the elephant in a certain angle. and in another blind man’s position – we need to hold a wider position as to what led to the crackdown campaign of the Chinese authorities against Falun Gong.
Falun Gong which literally means. “Practice of the Wheel of Law. ” is a system of head and organic structure cultivation. It is besides known as Falu Dafa ( Great Law of the Wheel ) .1TheFalun Dafamotion is a tradition inXulianwith its prehistoric roots using ancient Chinese methods to cultivate head and organic structure as a manner of maintaining fit and mending oneself. It is besides associated with spiritual patterns. Subsequently on. the leaders of Falun Dafa adopted a new word:Qi whichagencies cosmopolitan life energy ; whileGongagencies cultivation energy.2Buddhist and Taoist rules are incorporated in this pattern through exercising and the cultivation of the organic structure. Their instructions are taken chiefly from Falun Gong3and Zhuan Falun.
Most of the practicians of Falun Gong are drawn to it because of the good impact of its patterns and exercisings as Barend ter Haar mentioned in his article. Haar said. “published experiences by practicians stress the positive effects for their wellness. Given the turning disbursal of the wellness system to manypeople and wavering common support webs. the positive effects of Qigong pattern andthe support webs ensuing from rank will hold been supportive for the spreadof the Falun Gong.”4
Founder Li Hongzhi Li said that in the past its secrets were passed merely from maestro to
pupil but Hongzhi made the motion populace in China in 1992 and is now available to anyone
through its worldwide subdivisions. It claims a 100 rank of 70 million on China and 30 million elsewhere in the universe. They continually deny being a faith. cult or religious order claiming that they are chiefly “a web for conveying information andpatterns. in which people may dunk on an incidental footing or more on a regular basis.”5
The Falun Dafa Australia web site lists three studies conducted in 1998 all of which proposing important betterment in wellness. The first study lists a squad of 11 research workers assembled from assorted universities. infirmaries and institutes. It was conducted on more than so thousand Falun Gong disciples in Beijing. The latter two did non supply information on who performed the studies. The consequences suggested 99. 1 % disease mending rate. and 58. 5 % remedy rate among the participants.6
Many expert and bookmans are divided in labeling Falun Gong as a ‘cult. ’ Stephen Hassan’s standards of ‘Thought control’ includes control of behaviour. ideas and emotions. Harmonizing to Hassan. “it is by pull stringsing these three elements that cults derive control over a person’s individuality. ” Claiming to pull on his experience working with “former cult members. ” Hassan adds a 4th constituent. the control of information. For each of these constituents. Hassan provides a list of specific patterns ( e. g. : a demand to internalise a group’s philosophy as “Truth” is one facet of Thought Control ) . Hassan suggests that “destructive head control” can be determined when the “overall effect” of these four elements “promotes dependence and obeisance to some leader or cause. ” It is non necessary for “every individual item” to be included and contends that “mind-controlled cult members” can be incorporate members of society. but “still be unable to believe for themselves and move independently. ” Hassan claims on his web site that with Falung Gong” ‘thought control and phobia indoctrination is really much used. ’ and elsewhere that Li Hongzhi is “the cult extreme” and the “authoritarian stereotype. ”7. Though he said that he has non had an chance to interview any “individuals who have been really involved with this group and decided to go forth. ” and is therefore non positive that Falun Gong “fulfils thought control theoretical account in its entireness. ”8
It became the centre of international notice when more than 10. 000 of its followings staged a soundless protest in Beijing on April 25. 1999. The demonstrators did non pull attending to themselves and were non noticed until there were all of a sudden thousand of them sitting softly in one of the most politically sensitive locations in the state. Most were ordinary people from different parts of China.9
The said protest was the consequence of incidents that happened old ages ago in an effort to “malign” the religious order as the Falun Gong practicians claimed.Guangming Daily( the mouthpiece of the State Council ) published an article by a editorialist denouncing Falun Gong ensuing to a countrywide handbill. censoring the distribution of all Falun Gong publications by the Chinese News Publication Office. In early 1997. the Public Security Bureau began a countrywide probe to garner grounds in the hopes of projecting Falun Gong as an “evil cult. ” but was subsequently stopped. At the terminal of May 1998. He Zuoxiu denounced Falun Gong in an interview on Beijing stating that Falun Gong was “feudalistic superstitious notion. ” On April 11. 1999. He Zuoxiu published an article in the Tianjin College of Education’sYoung person Readermagazine entitled “I Do Not Agree with Youth Practicing Qigong. “ Though it was boycotted by Beijing’s propaganda system. the article spread in Tianjin. Qigong’s followings went at that place to protest. Riot constabularies were so dispatched ensuing to the apprehension of 45 people and the hurts of some dissenters. They were subsequently told to travel to Beijing to decide the affair when its followings requested the release of the dissenters. In short notice the practicians gathered all across the state.10Therefore. the incident catapulted the soundless protest in Beijing on April 25. 1999.
In an article. “The Falung Gong. Buddhism and Buddhist quigong. ” Penny negotiations about the fact that critiques from Buddhist circles’ like the Chinese Buddhist Association was “especially acute to show its ani-Falun Gong certificates. ” Penny says that in 1999 post-persecution context. the Buddhist Association had already been critical of Falun Gong for ‘the past few old ages. ’ Buddhist community’s response to the Falun Gong could besides hold been in portion to Falun Gong’s rapid growing in China. and “with a name redolent of Buddhism. must hold given the Association’s leading ground for concern and compelled a response. ”11.
The group was outlawed on July 22. 1999. followed by a national crackdown except in Hongkong and Macau. The Chinese authorities said that. “Falun Dafa had non been registered harmonizing to jurisprudence and had been engaged in illegal activities. recommending superstitious notion and distributing false beliefs. juggling people. motivating and making perturbations. and endangering societal stableness. ”8Dayss before its prohibition. Chinese governments issued a warrant of apprehension for Master Li. Harmonizing to the official Xinhua News Agency. theMinistry of Public Securityin Beijing said that sect laminitis Li Hongzhi “dispersed superstitious notion and malicious false beliefs to deceive people. ensuing in the deceases of many practicians.” He is besides accused of forming presentations without first using for licenses.12
The principle behind the Chinese government’s determination may besides be believing back of the alleged Drawerss of 1900. Although modern Western scholarship perceive it as unsystematic. the Chinese considered the Boxers as a much more organized spiritual phenomenon. anti-Western. anti-Christian and pro-Qing dynasty at that clip. but an unmanageable motion however. In their anti Falun Gong propaganda sites. elaborate comparings to Ming and Qing “heterodox” groups are besides included. Therefore. the communist rule’s response to the Falun Gong motion should likely be seen in modern-day footings ( the Communist state’s fright of Falun Gong as an organisational construction and alternate claimant to politico-religious legitimacy ) . every bit good as against the background of a specific cultural reading. Among educated groups. such as medical specializers of Western and Chinese school medical specialty ( the latter is normally referred to as Traditional Chinese Medicine or TCM ) . there may besides be considerable unease about the Falun Gong paradigm of the beginning of disease in karmic discourtesy ( which has clear Buddhist roots ) .
Interestingly. the Communist rule’s tantrums in absolutely in a centuries old tradition. In this tradition. a spiritual phenomenon that is normally merely marginally understood is perceived as unsafe for whatever ground and so stigmatized as rebellious. violent. deceiving the people. and so forth. The present accusals that the Falun Gong is responsible for the deceases of so many people and so forth unhappily fit in an old form of labeling and stigmatising spiritual phenomena as White Lotus Teachings or otherwise. This accusal may even at times be true. but similar accusals can be made against political systems with restricted entree to wellness attention in general and wellness attention is straight linked to wealth and from at that place to a specific ideological system that limits wellness attention for poorer and older people.13.
The Time article mentioned that even if considerable sum of bounds were pushed in the thick of economic reforms. the “party’s house appreciation on the tools of repression. ” is still deployed when straight threatened.18The crackdown of the motion includes mobilising all facet of the society – the constabulary force. media. household. schools. and the workplace – traveling every bit far as making a Body to supervise the run. Family members and coworkers were told to help this run by promoting the practicians to abjure.14Amnesty International reported that“tens of 1000s of Falun Gong practicians have been randomly detained by constabulary. some of them repeatedly for short periods. and put under force per unit area to abdicate their beliefs. Many of them are reported to hold been tortured or ill-treated in detainment. Some practicians have been detained in psychiatric infirmaries. Those who have spoken out publically about the persecution of practicians since the prohibition have suffered rough reprisals. ”15
The run at times resembles the surpluss of the Cultural Revolution of Mao Zedong. says Matthew Forney. a Time letter writer. Among its run is the securing of 1 million children’s signatures opposing Falun Gong. After pupils attended a talk by their principal on the immoralities of the group. pupils took bends to curse: “I do non believe in Falun Gong. I believe in scientific discipline. ” Eight-year-old Yu Xiaohong stunned his instructors by striding frontward and declaring. “I do non believe in Falun Gong. I believe in Jesus. ” The instructors called his parents in for a conference. “I explained we’re Christians. ” says the boy’s male parent.
The school was satisfied. but “it was all so unneeded. ” he says. Another run was a assortment show called The Voice of Truth and Justice in a Beijing theatre. It featured a adult female in a rhinestone tiara with a provocative slit up her frock who wins ribald cheers from the audience when she sings about a building worker who goes insane practising Falun Gong and a practician who burns himself alive. During the shutting a adult male in a white dinner jacket. ruddy bow tie. studded cowboy boots and an Elvis Pompadour croons: “Li Hongzhi is a toxicant serpent. ” An deserter. who now leads people off from the motion. still seems ambivalent about her transition. “It’s difficult to state. ” she responds when asked if she would still pattern if the authorities had non banned Falun Gong. “I think it’s still better non to. ”16.
Time letter writer. Matthew Forney conducted an interview and found out that though the Falun Gong pattern is purely prohibited in China its practicians still got a manner of in secret acquiring engaged in this exercising and even acquiring in contact with other members of their group -going every bit far as accessing information and stuffs from Li Hongzhi. These stuffs will so be distributed to their members via the cyberspace. Calendar months after the said interview. five adult females set themselves on fire in Tiananmen including a 12 twelvemonth old miss and her female parent both of whom have died.17
Recent studies said that Falun Gong is turning to International Courts in run to alter the Chinese leading. They have filed at least a twelve suits in foreign tribunals against Chinese functionaries they accuse of rights maltreatments with former President Jiang Zemin as their chief mark. Legal action is the latest maneuver in a run to pull attending to China’s barbarous 3-year-old crackdown on the group. The tribunal instances apply foreign Torahs such as the U. S. Alien Tort Claims Act to offenses committed in China. ”They are stigmatising the leaders of China with invented charges. They’re seeking to stain our authorities. and they are seeking to catch attending for themselves. ” Foreign Ministry spokesman Kong Quan said. New instances were filed in Finland. Iceland. Belgium. France and Australia. The group says it has signed on high-profile attorneies such as British homo rights lawyer Geoffrey Robertson to stand for it. ”The intent of these instances is simple and specific: to aim those responsible for the persecution. This is non a political run against the Chinese authorities. ” said Levi Browde. a Falun Gong spokesman in the United States. All Falun Gong activism these yearss comes from abroad ; mainland followings are in concealing. It is ill-defined how many mainland Chinese are Falun Gong practicians.18
The Chinese authorities frequently denied the allegations by stating that the accusers were lying. Outstanding studies in the media and telecasting claimed that Falun Gong’s follower’s decease was caused by self-destruction. Prisoners were accused of forming and administering literatures of their religious order. The authorities said that Falun Gong is an“evil cult that hoodwinked followers”and caused more than 1. 600 deceases. largely by promoting followings to utilize speculation alternatively of medical specialty to bring around complaints. Falun Gong on the other manus claimed about 300 followings have died in detention during the crackdown and that many more have been tortured and abused. Thousands of followings have been sent to prisons and labour cantonments.19At present Li Hongzhi is populating concealing in New York country. with his followings claiming that his life is at hazard.
The Chinese authorities claimed in the Press Release of the United Nations that.
“respect for human rights was written into the Chinese Constitution some clip ago. and advancement had been made. Unfortunately. there were still non-governmental organisationswhich were falsifying facts and distributing prevarications. in peculiar with respect to Falun Gong whichhad violated people’s rights and harmed other people. Falun Gong disregarded the jurisprudence.go againsting people’s rights and undermining security in China. These evil onslaughts had happenedonce more and once more and were a crying trample of international Torahs. Falun Gong besidesundermined public installations. cutting overseas telegrams and step ining in normal broadcasts. This hadaroused the great outrage of the populace. No state esteeming the regulation of jurisprudence would bearthese activities. and they should be punished. There were besides inquiries as to who provided thefinancess which paid for these activities. ”20
Many perceivers said that even if the ground for the crackdown of Falun Gong is justifiable. the agencies of making it is terrible and rough. The inquiry of why an Fe fist is necessary was explored by Phil Rees in a BBC article entitled. “ : Falun Gong: The enemy within. ” He said that the Falun Gong protest surprised the Chinese authorities and exposed an issue of failing in the Communist Party regulation. “The primary concern of the authorities is to incorporate turning public unrest – and with it societal stableness – in the face of a quickly altering economic landscape… the party has lost the moral and ideological leading it could claim during former decennaries. Corruptness and offense are turning. The spread between the rich and the hapless is widening. ”21There are still 1000000s of unemployed in China. and the absence of societal and medical wellness attention are good adequate grounds to garner crowd and present a protest. In an angle of sing the present population of China. a protest could be a menace strong plenty to subvert of a government.
2. B. A. Robinson. Falun Gong & A ; Falun Dafa
& lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www. religioustolerance. org/falungong2. htm & gt ;
4. . B. ter Haar.Falun Gong: Evaluation and farther mentions. at: & lt ;hypertext transfer protocol: //sun. sino. uni-heidelberg. de/ & gt ;
& lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www. falundafa-pa. net/survey/survey98-1_e. pdf & gt ;
hypertext transfer protocol: //www. sfgate. com/cgi-bin/article. cgi? f=/c/a/2005/12/18/MNGGAG8MO31. DTL
& lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //partners. nytimes. com/library/world/asia/042799china-protest. hypertext markup language & gt ;
19 “China accuses Falun Gong of manufacturing lawsuit’s claims of constabularies abuse”The Associated Press.October 12. 2007. & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www. rickross. com/reference/fa_lun_gong/falun241. hypertext markup language & gt ;
& lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www. un. org/News/Press/docs/2004/hrcn1073. physician. htm & gt ;
Barend ter Haar. Falun Gong.retrieved on October 14. 2007 hypertext transfer protocol: //website. leidenuniv. nl/~haarbjter/falun. htm
Barend ter Haar.Falun Gong: Evaluation and farther mentions. retrieved on October 14. 2007 & lt ;hypertext transfer protocol: //sun. sino. uni- heidelberg. de/ & gt ;
B. A. Robinson. “Falun Gong & A ; Falun Dafa. ” retrieved on October 14. 2007 & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www. religioustolerance. org/falungong2. htm & gt ;
“China accuses Falun Gong of manufacturing lawsuit’s claims of constabularies abuse”The Associated Press.October 12. 2007. & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www. rickross. com/reference/fa_lun_gong/falun241. hypertext markup language & gt ;
Dan et. Al. 1998. “Falun Gong wellness study. Ten 1000 instances in Beijing” retrieved on October 14. 2007 & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www. falundafa-pa. net/survey/survey98-1_e. pdf & gt ;
“Falun Gong crackdown. ”ABC News.retrieved on October 13. 2007 & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //abcnews. travel. com/sections/world/DailyNews/ & gt ;
“Falun Gong turns to international tribunals in run against Chinese leading. ”Associated Press. September 26. 2003 & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www. rickross. com/reference/fa_lun_gong/falun282. hypertext markup language
Falun Gong. retrieved on October 14. 2007 & lt ; World Wide Web. falundafa. org & gt ;
“Falun Gong. ”Wikipedia. hypertext transfer protocol: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Falun_Gong
Forney. Matthew. “The Breaking Point. ”Time.Monday. Jun. 25. 2001 retrieved on retrieved on October 14. 2007 World Wide Web. clip. com/time/world/article/0. 8599. 165163. 00. hypertext markup language
. Hassan. Steve.Freedom of Mind Resource Center.retrieved on October 14. 2007. hypertext transfer protocol: //www. freedomofmind. com/resourcecenter/groups/documents/falun-gong/steve-hassan-about-falun-gong & gt ;
Hua. Vanessa. “Critics and followings of Falung Gong: Disciples find fulfillment. but disparagers call motion a cult. ”San Francisco Chronicle. Oct. 10. 2007
hypertext transfer protocol: //www. sfgate. com/cgi-bin/article. cgi? f=/c/a/2005/12/18/MNGGAG8MO31. DTL
Penny. Benjamin. “The Falun Gong. Buddhism and ‘Buddhist”’Asiatic Studies Review( March 2005 ) Vol. 29 pp. 35-46
Persecution of Falun Gong. Wikipedia. retrieved on October 14. 2007 & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Persecution_of_Falun_Gong & gt ;
Press Release.United Nations. February 4. 2004. retrieved on October 14. 2007 & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www. un. org/News/Press/docs/2004/hrcn1073. physician. htm & gt ;
Rees. Phil.Falun Gong: The enemy within. Oct. 10. 2007 & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //news. bbc. co. uk/2/hi/programmes/correspondent/1567065. short-term memory & gt ;
“The crackdown on Falun Gong and other so called ‘heretical organisations.’Amnesty International. March 23. 2000 & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //web. amnesty. org/library/Index/engASA170112000 & gt ;
The Truth behind April 25 Incident & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www. faluninfo. net/SpecialTopics/april25abridged. hypertext markup language & gt ;