The EasyJet Business Model and its Market Survival Essay

1.0 – Title

2.0 – Introduction

3.0 – Research

3.1 – Purposes

3.2 – Aims

4.0 – Literature reappraisal

4.1 – Airline Industry

4.1.1 Deregulation of the Airline Industry in the US and in Europe:

4.1.2 Iranian Gulf War and Recession

4.1.3 World Trade Centre Disaster

4.2 – Budget Airline Industry

4.3 – History of Easy Jet

4.4 – Globalization and Technology

4.5 – Marketing – Alliance

4.6 – No Frills

4.6.1 – Input signals

4.6.2 – Product Design

4.6.3 – Process Design

4.7 – Competition

4.8 – Business Model

4.8.1 – Internet

4.8.2 – Customer Purchase Experience

4.8.3 – World Wide Web ( WWW ) Scheme

4.8.4 – The Doctrine

4.9 – Future

4.9.1 – Low rider comfort

4.9.2 – Questionable security criterions

4.9.3 – Uncertain calamity, effects and enlargement in the hereafter

5.0 – Methodology

5.1 – Secondary information

5.2 – Choice of research method

5.3 – Methodology

6.0 – Decisions

7.0 – Bibliography

Easy Jet and the Airline Industry

The subsequent portion of the paper is organised as follows.Section 3 discusses the purposes, aims and choice procedure of the research.Section4discuses the relevant literature that has been reviewed in the readying of this paper. It will depict the air hose industry and EasyJet’s scheme and concern theoretical account.Section5lineations the methods adopted and the spirit of the methodological analysis underlying the analysis of the findings.

Section6constitutes thedecision that is drawn from the research of this paper. Section 7 is the bibliography and mentions used in the authorship of this paper.This paper makes a instance for set uping a big – graduated table concern administration to work a promising concern chance in footings of supplyingeducation/career redingfor Indian pupils seeking professional promotion through abroad undergraduate/post alumnus instruction.

The pick of the above thesis has been determined chiefly out of my ain experiences as an undergraduate pupil in the United States and subsequently as a station – alumnus in the United Kingdom. The chief motive for the paper nevertheless transcends personal considerations and owes much to the outgrowth of societal forces released by globalization in developing states such as India.

1.1 – Globalization and Overseas Education

The Indian economic system has been, for most of the period, following the attainment of Independence in the late mid-fortiess, structured on a Assorted Economy theoretical account[ 1 ]that accorded economic primacy to the province.The spirit of cardinal planning dictated the allotment of resources in what was basically a closed and autarkic economic system that considered international trade to be of small relevancy.

All this changedin the early 1890ss on history of the realization that the middle-of-the-road theoretical account of development was going progressively irrelevant and incapable of supplying the economic growing necessary to prolong a criterion of life that matched those of other states in the universe. The prostration of the Soviet Union[ 2 ]had much to make with this new consciousness since cardinal planning in India had been peculiarly influenced by the Soviet theoretical account.In peculiar the Second Five Year Plan ( 1956 – 1961 )[ 3 ]which placed heavy accent on province owned heavy industries andwhichplayedsucha big portion in determining the Indianeconomic system for about 40 old ages was structured by the economic expert P.C. Mahalonobis who believed that the Soviet theoretical account contained the most promise to assist India secure rapid economic growing.

However, even after four decennaries of developmentbased on cardinal planning, India had non made much advancement, except foraccomplishingwhat came to be called the “Hindu rate of gro

3.1 – Purposes

The purposes of the research are to place the air hose industry and the EasyJet Business theoretical account and how does it last in the market.

3.2 – Aims

The aims of the research is to analyse the instance survey and reply the proposed research inquiry by analysing the air hose market, EasyJet’s concern theoretical account, the hereafter of the low cost bearers and the altering tendencies in the air hose industry that could impact the concern of these no frill air hoses.

4.1 – Airline Industry

The beginning of the air power industry was by Wright brothers who launched their first successful flight in Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. Airline was non used as an option in early old ages because of fright of travel but today it is used as a fastest manner of transit.

Since the 1980 RKP ( Revenue Passenger Kilometers ) was the manner the growing of the air hose industry is measured. This RKP is larger than the existent universe growing GDP. As we refer to the instance in Exhibit 1 we can see the growing of the air hose industry has faced many ups and downs since the 1980’s. This altering tendency in the air hose industry has been because of a assortment of grounds such as unmanageable environmental factors, terrorist act, globalisation, engineering, etc. The air hose companies in the earlier old ages worked on a really immense net income or loss border. If the figure of riders additions it brings in tremendous net income to the air hose and in the opposite instance can convey immense losingss. The air hose industry besides works on an highly high fixed cost and hence as the demand in the air hose decreases the company faces immense losingss. Besides it should be taken into consideration that it takes 1 – 2 old ages to construct a plane and hence increasing capacity instantly because of higher demand can be taxing for the company.

The air hose industry came into much usage merely during the 90’s because the cost of production went down and hence was more low-cost by clients although yet expensive. Then there was no looking back for the air hose industry as it was a multi billion market and hence competition increased drastically. Because of globalization and other factors the demand for concern and tourer travel increased at a more than dual rate. The increase criterion of life and altering tendency of sing topographic points around the universe besides increased this demand.

Addition in the travel was besides caused because of competition of other private air hoses besides the authorities air hoses coercing competition and at that place after cut downing monetary values even further.

The unmanageable factors consequence the air hose industry straight or in straight. Some of the factors because of which the air hose industry suffered are:

4.1.1 Deregulation of the Airline Industry in the US and in Europe:

In many states in the earlier old ages the authorities would command certain strategic sectors and air hose industry was one of them. The air hose industry was deregulated in the 1978 in the USA and about 15 old ages subsequently in Europe. This deregulating bought denationalization and hence there was enormous addition in competition. In no clip it changed from an oligopolistic industry to a perfect competition.

Europe was earlier run by the authorities whereby they controlled the full system like where the air hoses would wing, alterations in monetary value and the clip they would wing. But after the European economic system deregulated the air hose industry competition increased even in Europe. The deregulating of the EU in 1992 and really minimum trade barriers as per the WTO has increased travel worldwide. This has besides given the different air hoses an chance to spread out their web and use better selling to last in this perfect competition. One of the things that have changed the manner air hose industry is runing in 2000 is the debut of the “no frills low cost” bearers.

After deregulating as competition increased more than 75 % of the companies left the market as they could non get by up with the high market portion. When the deregulating took topographic point in the USA a new air hose called SouthWest air hose was introduced that cut its monetary values by 70 % hence being in front of the competition and capturing more and more market portion. In Europe following the SouthWest theoretical account Ryanair and EasyJet came into being.

Even besides deregulating the authorities yet controlled the clip slots, set downing rights and other privileges awarded by them. Government was besides responsible in back uping the air hose industry by constructing new substructure. Therefore even though deregulating took topographic point there was a large political and governmental influence on the industry.

4.1.2 Iranian Gulf War and Recession

The air hose industry even though deregulated had suffered losingss until it recovered in the 1988, but it was followed by recession in 1989 and the gulf war in 1990 / 1991. The gulf war and the recession which was elongated for four long old ages hit the industry with a loss of US $ 22 million.

Besides the industry being affected severely there was besides lessening in the sum of clients winging as they were scared. Besides the high oil monetary values during the Gulf War increased the fixed cost of the air hose which in bend increased monetary values drastically. Airlines became profitable merely after 1995 as many cost decreases had taken topographic point to fulfill client demands.

4.1.3 World Trade Centre Disaster

As we can see in Exhibit II of the instance survey we can see that the air hose industry was profitable from 1995 up boulder clay 2000 and so faced a deep dip in net incomes when the September 11Thursdaycatastrophe took topographic point. After effects of the September 11Thursdaymade a few air hose companies file bankruptcy as they suffered immense Looss because of the high cost of production. The September 11Thursdaycatastrophe increased security as they hired more forces and security applications, addition in the waiting clip for riders and besides made air transport really less attractive. Therefore air hoses had to develop a rhythm of trust for their clients as they were following alternate methods of carry oning concern like picture conferencing and shared corporate jet. The permutation of winging increased concern in picture conferencing by 30 % and besides it lost 10 % of its concern and first category clients. SARS and Iraq war decreased net incomes even further. All these above external factors straight or in straight affected the air hose industry that changed the manner concern was operated in the 21stcentury. The debut of the budget air hose industry is explained below:

4.2 – Budget Airline Industry

A Budget Airline is a low cost air hose which does non publish tickets, no connexions, speedy checking, merely one category of tickets and sell straight to the client.

Budget air hose industry was introduced in 1971 by Rollin King and Herb Kelleher named SouthWest air hose which followed the ticket less and no frill scheme. Many old ages subsequently another air hose was introduced following the SouthWest theoretical account called RyanAir. It besides focused on no frill theoretical account and focused on functionality. Just a small ulterior Easy Jet was introduced which was a no frill, and web based booking air hose cut downing cost drastically.

Airlines like British Airways, Air France, Delta etc. , earlier would bear down a full monetary value if a client booked ticket in progress and so sold it for a cheaper monetary value as the day of the month comes closer. But air hoses like Easy Jet applied a wholly different pricing theoretical account that is cheaper tickets sold in progress and monetary value additions as the day of the month gets closer. Therefore this pricing theoretical account was subsequently applied by many bearers for better net incomes.

4.3 – History of Easy Jet

The easy jet was introduced by the boy of the Greek transportation baron, Stelios Haji-Ioannou who based it on the SouthWest Model that was introduced in the USA in 1995.

The easy jet construct is based their pricing theoretical account that reduces the air menu for riders in short draw flights so that they can wing often. The traditional theoretical account was that the air hoses were doubting with take downing monetary values as it would impact the gross but easy jet has wholly proven them incorrectly as it is increasing its market portion at a fast gait since its being.

Easy jet today has more than 75 paths in 36 European airdromes. The seats are exclusive by telephone reserve or online extinguishing the in-between work forces that are the travel agents. After one twelvemonth of its launch it designed a web site that became a really of import portion of the concern.

Easy jet is a member of the UK air hose group that consist of seven other companies and easy jet is responsible to run the traffic control. Easy jet has invested 1000000s of dollars to develop safe and dependable air traffic to increase and keep capacity on air and land for long term future growing.

In 2001 easy jet did a antic occupation by selling 75 % of its seats online and hence has been regarded as Europe’s 2nd largest air hose in UK. This arose the demand for enlargement and therefore it acquired British Airway’s subsidy Go. This acquisition made it the biggest low cost travel company in the universe even in front of its rival Ryan air.

The air hose besides signed a trade in 2002 to buy 120 Airbus to accomplish its end for growing. EasyJet besides followed the theoretical account of individual fleet aircraft which makes it easier for care, runing cost and preparation. But after its acquisition with Go the company faced a batch of extra administrative cost doing it hard for them to take down the monetary values.

4.4 – Globalization and Technology

Harmonizing to Cogburn ( www.unesco.org ) “globalization is about the monumental structural alterations happening in the procedure of production and distribution in the planetary economy” . Harmonizing to him “global companies can interrupt isolated concern maps and distribute them across the globe” . As a consequence of these procedures “developing states are confronting tidal moving ridge of alterations, chance and challenges” .

Globalization has made the universe a smaller topographic point to populate. It has besides increased competition worldwide and therefore clients want the best quality at a cheaper rate. Because of globalisation and client demand the air hose industry has besides changed the manner it operates with “no frills” scheme.

“The cyberspace will alter how people live, drama and learn. The industrial revolution brought together people with machines in mills, and the cyberspace revolution will convey together people with cognition and information in practical companies… it will advance globalization at an unbelievable gait. But alternatively of go oning over 100 old ages like the industrial revolution, it will go on over seven years” . [ Micklethwait John and Wooldridge Adrian ( 2000 ) , p 36 ]

Companies besides adopt to different planetary schemes like amalgamations and acquisitions alternatively of organizing a wholly new company. This helps the company to increase its client base but it is besides really of import for the two companies to incorporate themselves so that the nucleus concern and scheme is non destroyed. As in the instance of EasyJet, it merely operated one sort of aircraft for lower operating expense and care cost. But when it acquired GO it had different sorts of aircrafts that therefore it was really hard to maintain the monetary value lower. Therefore it is of import to follow different planetary schemes but extended research needs to be done by calculating the after affects.

4.5 – Marketing – Alliance

The air hose industry has developed from its nascent yearss when the Wright brothers invented the first aeroplane. Today it is a big and complex industry crossing the full Earth. Major considerations in the industry today are the planetary capacity excess and output direction to hike net incomes and achieve interrupt even points.

The paper suggests that European air hose industry follows four major concern theoretical accounts, instead the concern is divided into four classs of participants –

1 ) National Flag Carriers, 2 ) No Frills Airlines, 3 ) Regional / Niche participants and 4 ) Charter air hoses

The National Flag Carriers are the major universe air hoses that cover a broad scope of finishs and distances from long draw intercontinental flights to short distances. Distinct characteristics of the major bearers are high service criterions, common quality, frequent circular plans and code-sharing.

During the 80’s the major air hoses of the universe followed a “hub and spoke” expression to spread out services – whereby they would run from a individual airdrome as its hub and fly to multiple finishs. British Airways was the 1st to develop the London Heathrow airdrome as its hub.

The benefits of the hub and spoke theoretical account can be seen from the important affiliations and partnerships major air hoses have formed. This has given the circulars a big choice of flights and connexions to virtually every corner of the universe. It has besides resulted in better output directions so that air hoses can run higher burden factors.

The paper states that air hoses presently need 70 % burden factor for their Jumbo aircraft winging long distances and new aircraft to be launched will cut down that to 58 % doing air hoses more profitable.

A survey done on the gross generated by the major universe air hoses indicate a big part coming from concern travelers. After the planetary economic downswing in 2001, the air hoses have seen dual digit bead in concern travel which has resulted in important loss of gross and profitableness. The displacement has been chiefly due to the handiness of cheaper options and cost cuts in industries across the Earth. As a consequence the market capitalisation of the national bearers has fallen between 36 % and 56 % over a span of 2 old ages from 2001 to 2003.

4.6 – No Frills

The No frills theoretical account is different from the traditional method of operation. The no frill airlines work on a minimal criterion of service, low monetary values and short flights. The key to their nucleus concern is the low cost pricing scheme. Pricing is chiefly controlled in the three countries that is:

4.6.1 – Input signals

Low cost in inputs is achieved by low cost of labor, similar aeroplanes for lower care and operation, decrease in airdrome fees as it would non wing at the large airdromes, lower rewards and better use of staff for illustration two displacements alternatively for three, and normally take older flights that have a lower investing.

4.6.2 – Product Design

The merchandise design is point to indicate agreement with usage of secondary airdromes. This saves cost and helps better on clip public presentation as the secondary airdromes are cheaper and less crowded as compared to the busy 1s. Point to indicate agreements besides reduces connexion riders. All seats in a no frill air hose are manager and has lesser infinite. They besides do non hold any sofas, providing and no bag transportations between flights. This helps them to salvage cost and better their public presentation.

4.6.3 – Process Design

The procedure design offers simplified embarkation, debarking and aircraft service. This helps the air hose to salvage turn around clip and hence can do multiple trips. There are no agents and engagement is normally done over the cyberspace which reduces the gross revenues cost and hence can supply the client with extra price reductions.

Therefore as we can see that the inputs, merchandise design and procedure design reduces the cost by 59 % as show in exhibit VI. The tabular array divided the three by grounds of cost decrease by different per centum and it can be seen that each contribute to lower cost for the company drastically.

4.7 – Competition

As we know that the no frills scheme has changed the manner concern is runing in the air hose industry. Therefore many major participants are contending to be profitable. Every participant is altering its scheme and experimenting in the new market.

Lufthansa has reduced capacity and increased its pricing by 4.5 % . This is a new scheme adopted by them as they are cut downing the sum of aircraft that is runing. They are besides cutting rewards for workers every bit good as the wage.

However other air hoses like BA and KLM started new subsidy to vie with the no frill bearers like EasyJet and Ryanair. Both BA and KLM required high investing when their nucleus concern was enduring and both of them sold of their operations eventually to concentrate on their nucleus concern and schemes.

Lufthansa who were loath to get down their ain low cost bearer eventually invested into Eurowings. They besides started a figure of flights to Germany called the Germanwings. It was noticed that these major participants were puting in many low cost paths by increasing their capacity to capture more market portion. They besides wanted to maintain monetary values lower to take away the market portion from other manners of transit. British Airways and Lufthansa worked on a scheme that provided lower cost than any of its other rivals and these tickets purchased did non necessitate to be booked in progress and was non a restricted ticket. They followed this scheme as it would hold been really utile to the client and in bend would be profitable to them.

4.8 – Business Model

Easy Jet’s concern theoretical account is related to its pricing. It has a built in advantage as it reduces the operating expense and administrative cost as it uses an bizarre attack. Easy jet makes every attempt to take down all unneeded costs as they do non cover with travel agents. Customer have to order their ticket either online or over the telephone where extra price reductions are given to fulfill clients.

The easy jet success is linked to the cyberspace theoretical account used by the company to sell tickets. This is a really cost effectual and dependable theoretical account as globalisation and engineering comes into being.

4.8.1 – Internet

Easy jet’s ticket gross revenues are chiefly through the cyberspace. Almost 75 % of its gross revenues is through the on-line web site. Earlier clients were a small doubting to utilize recognition cards and do payment online but in today’s high tech universe it has boosted the gross revenues of the company drastically.

The client places the order over the cyberspace which gives them a broad assortment of picks and day of the months and menus available on each flight. The menus offered by Easy jet are lower than the competition and hence preferred by the client.

Normally bulk of the air hoses work on a return trip footing, but Easy jet follows a one manner scheme giving clients the pick of winging one manner, unit of ammunition trip or multi leg trip giving them the best and cheapest options available as per day of the month and clip that is preferred by the client. Flights that are booked through the web are priced much lower than the telephone giving the client as advantage by the air hose cut downing its over caput cost.

4.8.2 – Customer Purchase Experience

The web site of the company is designed as a procedure that allows the rider to go out at any clip if he changes his head. The web site does non necessitate the rider to infix inside informations every clip he or she needs to see the clip and day of the month for a peculiar flight. The web site besides has a login system whereby it shops the name, reference and all other related personal inside informations so that the client does non hold to take the problem to re-enter information every clip he or she wants to buy a ticket. Therefore it registers user names and watchword so that the full procedure if fast and non clip devouring.

As we know a batch of air hose companies as you to make full personal inside informations before they give you the monetary value, day of the month, and clip of a peculiar flight. This can acquire the client truly frustrated as sometimes they merely want to look into the monetary value to compare it to what the other air hoses offer.

This easiness of usage installations of the web site offered to the client and the low monetary values available as compared to any other rival makes it a memorable experience for the client who wants to return back to easy jet at any other clip he or she wants to do a purchase. This web site and pricing theoretical account has developed a positive trade name image for the company by which it retains client trueness and increases its client base.

4.8.3 – World Wide Web ( WWW ) Scheme

The web scheme applied by easy jet has been so successful that more than 75 % of their gross revenues are through the cyberspace. Therefore the company is seeking to phase out of the telephone reserve to cut down cost even further and will be one of the lone air hose that would sell air hose tickets merely through the cyberspace. Their selling scheme to phase out of this telephone reserves has started by non naming its telephone figure on any selling and advertisement stuff but merely observing its web site for farther concern.

Their chief ground to phase out of this is because this web attack has been really successful so far and therefore they are confident that it will make good in the hereafter as engineering progresss and the usage of computing machine is increased and known to all.

4.8.4 – The Doctrine

Easy jet has been invariably making new things to develop and increase concern. it follows the distinction and first in the market scheme to construct its client base. It has wholly changed the operation of the air hose industry as many people are cognizant and purchase from easy jet because of the low monetary value of the ticket every bit good as easy handiness for one manner, multi leg and unit of ammunition trip tickets. Besides cost film editing and efficiency provided they believe in fulfilling their clients a 100 % as the word of oral cavity scheme has been proved successful in any concern. Therefore these low cost methods of advertisement and selling have made it possible for them to sell tickets at a lower cost compared to all other air hoses available in the market.

The concern theoretical account used by easy jet has allowed it to accomplish growing in the mature air hose industry by using distinction scheme in this extremely competitory universe. It has put a positive perceptual experience in the head of the client and runing really expeditiously and economically as it depends more on the functionality of the air hose instead than the frills offered to the clients. The scheme used by easy jet is bold and modern and can be hazardous for them as they decided to do gross revenues merely through the cyberspace. The company applies sound rules while researching the market by making extended research and therefore is ready to take a few hazards as it believes that alterations in the company is required for future net incomes and growing.

4.9 – Future

The hereafter of the no frills low cost carrier’s looks bright as more and more clients are desiring to pass less on travel as they have many options available. As we know that no concern theoretical account today is perfect so hence there are a few defects to this theoretical account besides as the low comfort of riders to go in an aircraft with nutrient and adequate leg infinite, security provided by these aircrafts is questionable and besides the uncertainnesss and external factors of the hereafter can consequence the air hose industry as it has done over the yesteryear.

4.9.1 – Low rider comfort

The theoretical account applied by low cost bearers is really simple as it follows a no frill scheme. But it is questionable that this theoretical account may be excessively simple for travelers who want to maintain their position and besides concern people whose going disbursal is paid by the company disbursal. Therefore they would non mind paying a premium monetary value for their comfort and position. Besides bulk of these low cost bearers may call off or reschedule a flight without anterior notice and a concern traveler traveling for some of import work would non be able to afford losing and of import meeting or order. Besides it has to be taken into consideration that low cost bearers like EasyJet fly to secondary airdromes as they can non afford the busy airdromes. Therefore this may non be acceptable to everyone as the secondary airdrome may be a small far off from the metropolis and hence other manners of transit will necessitate to be taken for them to make their finish. Low cost bearers besides work on the policy of no cancellation or advanced engagement inexpensive monetary value but this may non be utile in times of exigency when the client would stop up paying the same monetary value for a normal menu ticket by a major air hose and a low cost air hose. Therefore the hereafter will find the altering tendency in the air hose industry and if the low cost bearers would last and be more profitable or be wholly swiped out by the major participants.

4.9.2 – Questionable security criterions

Security has been a cardinal issue for a batch of people particularly after the terrorist act onslaught of 9/11. As we know low cost bearers cut cost in every possible manner therefore clients may now oppugn the manner security issues are handled by the low cost bearers. As we know that the low cost bearers try and better their clip public presentation so that the flights can be wholly utilized. But do they pay adequate attending to security because of deficiency of bend around clip. Besides the air hose needs to construct a history for themselves so that people believe in a trade name. As traveling by aircraft can be a inquiry of life and decease for a individual therefore any bad incident can truly impact the concern of the air hose.

4.9.3 – Uncertain calamity, effects and enlargement in the hereafter

The hereafter is unsure for the air hose company as it will alter with the client demand. Besides if the low cost air hose needs to better its capacity so it will hold to spread out it web by winging to multiple finishs. Besides the current theoretical account of low cost air hose makes it wing to finishs which do non hold connexions. Therefore the low cost air hose may hold to acquire into longer draw connexions. But by increasing this base and altering their scheme they may non be able to maintain up with the cost advantage they are working at.

Therefore air hose are using planetary schemes like amalgamations and acquisitions to turn in the market. EasyJet applied the planetary scheme and acquired BA’s GO. But it proved to be an unsuccessful scheme for them as they found it really hard to take down the cost as care and operations increased. The low cost bearers today are capturing the market as they are 50 – 60 % lower in cost as compared to the major participants. But if they need to be in concern they will hold to follow that scheme and pricing theoretical account so that they can capture market based on cost effectivity.

The research is done chiefly utilizing secondary beginnings of information from the instance, cyberspace, books, articles, diaries, newspapers, etc.

5.1 – Secondary information

A library based survey was done to happen relevant information to depict the proposed research. This includes the selling and scheme applied by easy jet in take downing its cost and increased market portion. Other than the instance, books and other stuffs like articles, diaries and concern reappraisals have besides been taken to do the study scholarly.

The most of import part here is the database maintained by the British Council Library. The informations obtained from databases like EBSCO, Info path and Business Premiere has been highly valuable in footings of its assisting to gauge the tendency and literature of the topic.

5.2 – Choice of research method

This subject was chosen because it is interesting to understand the different doctrine and methods applied by easy jet as compared to other air hoses. Besides interestingly easy jet is now dependent on merely selling online therefore the hazards taken by the company and the alterations made in its operations and functionality is intriguing to cognize.

5.3 – Methodology

The parents ofthose who had graduated wereasked whether they believed that the abroad stretchs of their kids had generated value.In peculiar they were asked their positions on the public-service corporation of theadvice/services provided by admittancecounselors.

3.1.2 – Other Primary Data

The enquiry procedure adopted in this paper is subjective. The research attack adopted here is inductive in nature seeking non so much to enforce a pre-conceived theoretical account. Given this facet of the paper, the clip – frame chosen is needfully longitudinal.

The paper analyses the instance survey and replies the proposed research inquiry. It starts by giving us a background for the air hose industry, budget air hose industry and history for EasyJet. It farther describes other factors that are responsible for the altering tendencies in the air hose industry such as globalisation and engineering.

It besides described the competition in the air hose market and the competition and different selling techniques applied by these companies. Further, it tells us about the concern theoretical account that is adopted by EasyJet and the nature of the no frill air hose market. It so describes to us about the hereafter of this air hose industry and what are the possible menaces that could impact the concern of the low cost bearer air hose in the long tally. It besides later describes the methodological analysis adopted in work outing this instance and will be followed by the bibliography.

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Hill, Charles. International Business. 4th Edition. Essex: McGraw-Hill Publication, 2003

Kotler, Philip & A ; Armstrong, Gary. Principles of Marketing. 3rd European Edition. Essex: Pearson Education Limited, 2001.

Heil, Scott and Terrance W. Peck, eds. The Encyclopedia of American Industry, 2nd erectile dysfunction. Detroit: Gale Research, 1998.

Petzinger, Thomas. Hard Landing: The heroic poem competition for power and net incomes that plunged the air hoses into pandemonium. New York: Timess Business, 1995.

Yao, Z.H. .Enterprise Export Marketing Strategy. Guangzhou: Guangdong Economic Publishing Company, 2002.

Anderson, J. C. & A ; J. A. Narus ( 1999 ) Business Market Management. Understanding, Creating and Delivering Value, New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc.

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www.easyjet.com

hypertext transfer protocol: //www.lonelyplanetexchange.com/budgetairlinehistory.htm

hypertext transfer protocol: //scriptorium.lib.duke.edu/adaccess/airline-history.html

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