Harmonizing to the Dominick Salvatore ( 2009 p.3 ) microeconomic theory is possibly the most of import class in all economic sciences and concern plans. With it we can reply or understand such inquiry as why the monetary value of gold rose aggressively in few old ages ; why the monetary value of gasoline rose dramatically in 2008s-2010s and declined in 2011s ; why the monetary value of sugar rose in few old ages ; why the cereal rose in few old ages and others. By contrast, microeconomics is the survey of single house family or houses ( concern units ) . It focuses on peculiar parts of the economic system. Microeconomics theory provides the tools for understanding how the other economic systems operate.
2.0 Introduction to Monopoly
Harmonizing to the Cambridge lexicon ( 2nd edition ) monopoly in microeconomics mean is when a company or organisation is the lone 1 in an country of concern or activity and has complete control of it. In market construction under the monopoly there is a individual marketer and big of purchasers and merchandising merchandises. It have no a high entry and the being of barrier and have no close permutation to other sellers to come in into the market. Examples of merchandises in monopoly market in our state are H2O, electricity and local telephone services. Our place telephone services are Telekom Malaysia ( TM Berhad ) . Obviously, Telekom Malaysia is a monopoly in market. Through this it can allow us cognize the significance and ground doing monopoly. Besides that, it besides know characteristic of monopoly and how affect or consequence in market construction.
3.0 Features of Monopoly
3.1.1 Single Firm
Under the monopoly individual marketer is that the monopoly marketer is the market. The market demand for a good is the demand for the end product produced by the monopoly.
3.1.2 Barriers to Entry
Barriers to entry is anything are designed which unnaturally to barricade or forestall the entry of houses come ining a market productively. There are some of the cardinal barriers to entry are patents and right of first publications, bound pricing, advertisement, international trade limitations and development outgo.
3.1.3 Monetary value Maker
Single house produces goods and have a monopoly in an full market that means it holds a big bulk of a stock. With holding a big bulk of a stock and a individual house makes a determination affect the monetary value of an point in market. As a consequence, marketer has full control over the market monetary value.
3.1.4 Unique Product
Single house produces unique the merchandise and no close replacements for the merchandise with each other.
For illustration, there is soon no close replacement for Berita Harian, the lone Malay linguistic communication newspaper in Singapore.
4.0 Conjectural Demand, Total Revenue, and Marginal Revenue Faced by a Monopolist
Table 4.1 Conjectural Demand, Total Revenue, and Marginal Revenue Faced by a Monopolist
Figure 4.1 Conjectural Demand and Marginal Revenue Curves of a Monopolist
Since D is a negatively sloped, MR is lower than P. The MR values are plotted at the center of each measure interval. The MR curve starts at the same point as the D curve and at every point bisect the distance between D and the perpendicular axis. MR is positive when D is elastic. MR=0 when D is unitary elastic and TR is a maximal. MR is negative when D is inelastic.
Table 4.2 Short-run Sum Cost, Marginal Cost, and Average Total Cost
FIGURE 4.2 Short-run Equilibrium of the Monopolist: Fringy Approach
The best or optimal degree of end product of the monopolizer is three units. This is given by point G, where MR=MC ( and the MC curve intersects the MR curve from below ) . At Q=3, P= $ 6 ( point A on the demand curve ) , ATC= $ 4.50 ( point B on the ATC curve ) , and the monopolizer earns $ 1.50 ( AB ) per unit of end product sold and $ 4.50in sum ( shaded country ABCF ) . At Q & A ; lt ; 3, MR & A ; gt ; MC and entire net incomes rise by increasing Q. At Q & A ; gt ; 3, MC & A ; gt ; MR and entire net incomes rise by cut downing Q.
Features of Monopoly are individual house, Barriers to entry high, alone merchandise, power of house over monetary value and advertisement. Single house earns more net incomes in this type of market construction because no close replacement merchandise to replace it. Barrier to entry is high because want to protect the individual house in market. A house produces the alone merchandises to avoid others houses to bring forth it. Monopolist has power to command monetary values of the merchandise. Last, it consists of advertisement in this type of market construction.
There are many types of market constructions features in which will impact the monetary value and nature competition. For illustration, figure of purchasers and Sellerss, merchandise distinction, and the easiness of entry into and issue from the market. Market structures refer to the competitory environment within which a house operates. Market structures divided into four basic types which is perfect competition, monopolistic competition, oligopoly and monopoly.
7.0 Perfect Competition
Perfect competition is a type of market in which there are big figure of purchasers and Sellerss. The Sellerss sell indistinguishable or homogenous merchandises. There is besides free entry and exists of the houses. Both the Sellerss and purchasers have perfect cognition of the market.
7.1 Features of Perfect Competition
7.1.1 There are many purchasers and Sellerss of a trade good
Reynolds, R. L. , ( 2005, p.2 ) points out that the idealised perfect competitory insures that no purchasers and Sellerss has any power or ability to act upon the monetary value. The perfect competitory market is monetary value takers. Each purchaser buys the trade good at the monetary value determined by the market status.
7.1.2 Homogeneous merchandise
The merchandise of an industry in which the end products of different houses are identical comparison with another merchandise. The homogenous merchandises are the merchandise where the purchasers could non distinguish the merchandises of one marketer to another marketer.
7.1.3 Perfect cognition
In perfect competition houses, consumers and resource proprietors have perfect cognition of all relevant monetary values and costs in market. No purchasers to pay more a monetary value of the merchandise higher than the prevalent monetary value. Similarly, Sellerss will non put or bear down a monetary value higher or lower than the prevalent monetary value. Advertisement has no range in this type of market.
7.1.4 Resources are perfect mobility
This means that inputs or resources are free to travel in market. Firms can come in or go forth the industry in the long tally without much difficultly. That is, there are no unreal barriers like transcript rights and hallmark or natural barriers such as immense capital demands to entry into and issue from the industry.
7.2 Monopolistic Competition
In monopolistic competitions there are contains many Sellerss but the merchandises are differentiated. Many Sellerss produce merchandises are similar but non indistinguishable. There are following characteristics of monopolistic competition.
7.3 Features of Monopolistic competition
7.3.1 Differentiated merchandises
Differentiated merchandises are merchandises that are similar but non indistinguishable and the merchandises are close replacements merchandises with each other. Sellers can non put their monetary values of the merchandises really different from each other. In physical distinction is through differences in design, stuff, colour and others. Further distinction of a peculiar merchandise may be based wholly on some marketer location of his store, sort of service they provide and just dealing.
7.3.2 Large figure of houses
Under monopolistic competition there is contains a large figure of houses fulfilling the market demand of the merchandise. These houses do non bring forth perfect replacements but the merchandises which are comparatively close replacement for each other. For case, in soft drink industry, the monetary values for a can of 330 milliliter soft drink scope among several trade names on market today such as Pepsi, Sarsi and Cola-cola
7.3.3 No barriers to entry and issue
Firms can besides and go forth a monopolistically competitory industry. The monopolistic component arises from merchandise distinction. For illustration, if & amp ; acirc ; ˆ?MAS & A ; acirc ; ˆ™ wants to go a company top 10 in international air hose system, this house must happen some difference in term of quality of service or installation equipment are provided by the house.
Harmonizing to the Dominick Salvatore 5-edition Principles of Microeconomics ( 2009, p.330 ) oligopoly is the signifier of market organisation in which there are few houses of a homogenous or differentiated merchandise.
3.5 Features of Oligopoly
3.5.1 Few Numberss of big houses
The houses are few but the size of houses is big. Few houses control overall the market to guarantee few figure of big houses have a just sum of market. For illustration of the oligopoly is Proton and Perodua.
Each house under the oligopoly is can impact the market, doing each house & A ; acirc ; ˆ™s picks dependant on the picks of the other houses. So, they are mutuality.
3.5.3 Barriers to entry
Oligopoly is intending merely few houses in the industry with barriers to the entry of new houses. Firms recognize their common dependance.
3.5.4 Advertising and merchandising costs
The houses want to increase a greater portion in the market and to maximise sale. So, this house will use more money on advertizement and other sale publicity. Ad and merchandising cost are playing an of import function in this type of market construction.
3.5.1 Homogeneous and differentiate merchandises
3.5.2 Homogeneous Product Oligopoly
. In market, industries produce intermediate merchandises and sent to other different industries for fabricating their merchandises. For illustrations of the homogenous merchandises are steel and aluminium industries.
3.6.2 Differentiate Product Oligopoly
Merchandises manufactured in these markets are for personal ingestion. For illustration of the differentiate merchandise oligopoly is beer, breakfast cereals, detergents, soaps, computing machines and others.
Monopoly is a individual marketer and sell the merchandise is alone. Therefore, in market construction there are many purchasers and selling the merchandise and there are no close replacements with each other. For illustration that gave by Dominick Salvatore ( 2009, p.287 ) The Aluminum Company of America ( Alcoa ) is a authoritative illustration of how a monopoly was created and maintained for about 50 old ages. The monopoly was created in the late 19th century when Alcoa acquired a patent on the method to take O from bauxite to obtain aluminium.
3.8 Features of Monopoly
3.8.1 Singer marketer in the market
There are no close replacements of the merchandise in the market and no more other rivals in the market. Monopolist can command or impact monetary value is grounds of its monopoly power.
3.8.2 Lack of competition
Under the monopoly in market construction there are deficiencies of competition because there are no close replacement merchandises in market.
The feature of market which is classified as one of four market theoretical accounts are perfect competition, monopolistic competition, oligopoly and monopoly. Perfect competition consists of many Sellerss and purchasers of a trade good, homogenous merchandises, perfect cognition, and resources are perfect mobility and no ability to command over the monetary value of a merchandise. Monopolistic competition is involved a big figure of houses, differentiated merchandises, no barriers to entry and issue and utilizing advertisement to switch demand. Oligopoly which is consist a few figure of big houses, mutuality, barriers to entry, publicizing and merchandising costs and homogenous and differentiate merchandises. Last, monopoly includes of vocalist marketer, deficiency of competition, alone merchandise and imperfect cognition.
In inquiry 2 the assorted features between the four types of market constructions which are Perfect Competition, Monopolistic Competition, Oligopoly and Monopoly have been discussed. These four types of market construction are different features and it will impact the nature or artificial of competition and the monetary value of the merchandise. The figure 6 is shows about the distinction of the features of the undermentioned market construction.
Number of manufacturers
Type of merchandise
Standardized or differentiated
Power of house over monetary value
Barriers to entry
Ad and merchandise distinction
Ad and merchandise distinction
Partss of agribusiness are sensible close