Krobeber develops a related determination doing theoretical account. Within this theoretical account, he claims that the tourer behavior is determined by three elements: travel perceptual experience, travel attitude and travel motive. He farther suggests that there are two flat influences. The first degree influence of Krobeber ( 1996, cited from Zhong, Zhang, Yang and Guo 2007 ) can be affected from internal factors such as personal psychological factor and the 2nd degree influence comes from external societal factors such as household background or group influence.
The chief parts sing motive is the Maslow ‘s hierarchy of demands theoretical account ( Maslow 1970 ) , the flight or seek theoretical account ( Iso-Ahola 1982 ; Ross and Iso-Ahola 1991 ) and the push and draw method ( Crompton 1979 ) . Mill and Morrison ( 1985 ) argues that travel motives fit into Maslow ‘s hierarchal demands – viz. , physiological, safety, belonging, self-esteem and self-actualization. Besides they identified two other demands: aesthetics and cognition. The human needs physiological, safety/security and belonging/love were categorized as tension-reducing, while the self-esteem, self-actualization, geting cognition and aesthetic as inductive – arousal-seeking motivations ( Figure 2.1 )
Figure 2.1 Travel/tourism motives
Beginning: ( Awaritefe 2004, p. 306 )
Motivation is one of variables that can explicate tourist behaviour ; it is regarded as one of the most of import variables ( Baloglu and Uysal 1996 ) . There are many of researches assure that travel determination devising is best explained and predicted by the push and draw attack include Backman, Backman, Uysal and Sunshine 1995 ; Baloglu and Uysal 1996 ; Ercan, Uysal and Yoshioka 2003. Crompton ( 1979 ) explains that motive is a necessary and of import force behind all behaviour.
Peoples travel because they are pushed and pulled to make so by motivational factors ( Baloglu and Uysal 1996 ) . Push motive is related to the determination, whether to travel, and draw motive addresses the inquiry of where to travel ( Klenosky 2002 ) . Crompton ( 1979 ) used unstructured in-depth interviews and explored push motive and pull motive, he summarizes that push is socio-psychological motivations that activate people to go and draw is cultural motivations that attract people to a peculiar finish. Traditionally, the push motives have been thought utile for explicating the desire for travel while the pull motives have been thought utile for explicating the existent finish pick ( Crompton 1979 ) . Harmonizing to Ross and Iso-Ahola ( 1991 ) , push motive can be considered as psychological factor and pull motive is physical factor. These two factors can act upon travel determinations and leisure battles. Jang and Cai ( 2002 ) point that push refers to the internal factors that drive persons to go and draw is concerned about the external factors that determine where, when, and how they travel. Kim ( 2008 ) addresses that the push factor can be considered as to go by intangible factors such as flight, relax, geographic expedition ) and pull factor is to make up one’s mind finishs by touchable factors such as attractive forces, installations.
Motivation as one of the most of import theories, it is recognized the key of the success of travel market. Iso-Ahola ( 1982 ) observes that people take portion in assorted leisure and travel activities due to their ain demand. Tourist motive is associated with persons ‘ desires for accomplishing assorted intents through travel ( Kim and Beck 2009 ) . Furthermore, surveies of tourer motive can help finish directors to understand “ how good the finish features fit the demands of the travellers ” ( Goeldner & A ; Ritchie, 2006 ) and design touristry merchandises and services incorporating tourer demands.
Destination pick and choice
2.3.1 Influential factors to do touristry determination
Once the determination made to get down touristry, the determination shaper is in forepart of many inquiries, such like where to go, whom to go with and how to go. In general, this is a procedure to roll up, form and measure the information ( Liu, 2008 ) .
18.104.22.168 Environmental perceptual experience
Environment perceptual experience refers to the touristry information rooted in head, the old information and collected information. In general, this is the whole feeling for the traveling. The possible tourers would be influenced by the environment perceptual experience. Though there might be some really important tourer finishs, the tourers will non travel the celebrated topographic points that have no feeling in their head and perceptual experience. That is what we called environmental perceptual experience.
Environmental perceptual experience chiefly include first, the popularity of tourer, which is the first feeling of the touristry finish, the tourer will pretermit other same finishs ; second is tourism distance, the influential factor to the determination is the fanciful distance, non the existent distance of the finish. The fanciful distance is made of unreal distance, and clip cost, money cost, and energy.
22.214.171.124 Principle of maximal benefit
Principle of maximal benefit refers to the tourers will acquire the best enjoyment within certain budget during the touristry. Tourists will believe it over before doing a determination to go. The chief rules of maximal benefit are:
The minimal clip on touristry, it means that the determination to go will be made harmonizing to clip disbursement on it, if the clip disbursement is less than a degree, so the determination will be made. Tourists are in favour of less clip disbursement on the traveling.
Second is the popularity of touristry finish. The touristry finishs with higher popularity are more attractive, and tourers have gained more information though touristry. Meanwhile, the touristry finish, which has different civilization, will elicit the involvement for touristry.
Beside the two factors, there are other influential factors: best touristry finish, proper monetary value and comfy adjustment.
126.96.36.199 Tourism penchant
Tourism penchant refers to the homo ‘s feeling based on their characters over the world. The touristry penchant of tourers is influenced by homo ‘s personal feeling. The touristry penchant is decided by personal feeling of tourers. Sing touristry penchant, there are three factors to research, including age, business and instruction.
2.3.2 Content of touristry determination
Before get downing the touristry, the tourers are supposed to do a batch of determinations ; any of them will take personal factors and will into consideration besides external factors. For illustration, they will inquire for some suggestions and believe about the touristry path and going spouse. These inquiries chiefly include information channel, determination shaper, going spouses and touristry form.
188.8.131.52 Information channel
Information channel is the manner to obtain and roll up the information. With assorted channel, it is able to obtain the merchandise information, or other users ‘ experience of utilizing the merchandises. As the society turns into a information-based ear, the information channel is assorted, which including networking channel, newspaper, books and magazine, telecasting, cyberspace and touristry establishments and so on.
184.108.40.206 Decision adviser
Decision adviser is person who the tourer will inquire for suggestions before get downing touristry. Potential tourers will take suggestions into consideration, and so is more likely to inquire for others ‘ audience about where to travel and how to travel.
220.127.116.11 Tourism spouses
Peoples would wish to happen spouses when go shopping, the same like tourers, many people like to get down touristry with spouses. Harmonizing to experts of consumer behaviour, they have made farther analysis on the relationship between individual and his spouses in shopping. Harmonizing to analysis, the shopping spouses are intended to supply the suggestions based on their experience on the merchandises and selling, while the relationship between them is non intimate, such like neighbour, co-worker and classmates. However, the suggestions might be concentrating on the individual ‘s characters and personal demand, while relationship between them is intimate, such like household members. Choices from touristry spouses are non merely a dependable resource, but besides the suggestions and advices.
18.104.22.168 Wayss of touristry
Wayss of touristry is concentrating on how to make the finish. In general, there are two ways to go, foremost is fall ining the traveling bureau, and another is single touristry. In this context, it will stipulate ways of touristry into several facets, including fall ining traveling bureau, single touristry depending on maps, company ‘s touristry, community ‘s touristry, establishment ‘s touristry and others.
2.4 The senior travel market
2.4.1 The seniors travel market in oversea
For abroad states, as they started the touristry analysis in an early clip, traced from 1980, the understanding towards touristry of the old people is really fruitful ( Liu, 2008 ) . It reflects in these facets:
Research on touristry motive
Sing the research of touristry for the old people, it chiefly focuses on touristry motive and perceptual experience. The research has applied many methods, including questionnaire, on-spot study. The method chiefly focuses on the inducement and influential factors. Besides these methods, many other scientific steps have been applied. For illustration, a study on the old people in Israel has been made by Aliza Fleischer in 2002. Harmonizing to the study, it found that the chief influential factors are income and wellness, besides the touristry clip is besides altering harmonizing to age. For the people aged from 55 to 65, they have lifting free clip and income, which is decisive to the increasing touristry times. For the people aged above 65, as their income and wellness traveling down, the touristry clip is cut downing ( Aliza, 2002 ) .
Jaesoo et Al. ( 2003 ) have applied nervous web of depicting method to gauge the weight of influential factors towards the old people ‘s touristry. Meanwhile, it applied the non-neural web theoretical account to depict the relationship between tourers and touristry merchandises. Anderson and Langmeyer ( 1982 ) analyzed the relationship between the old people and touristry. Harmonizing to study, tourers aged above 50 prefer touristry or sing relations to bask themselves. However, tourer aged below 50 prefer out-door activities or other amusement installation to bask themselves
Goossens ( 2000 ) proposed the theoretical account called enjoyment inducement, which is besides called theoretical account of purpose, stimulation and reaction. The theoretical account includes the factor of drawing and forcing. Sing the factor of forcing, it refers to environment, societal position, relax and friendly relationship ; in regard of the factor of pulling, it refers to the state of affairs of touristry. It emphasized the relationship between drawing and forcing, it considered that these two factors are two sides of a coin, which is closely tied in tourer ‘s head. Crompton and Mckay ( 1997 ) pointed out that there are 6 inducements to go to the activities, including experiencing civilization, wonder, return, and balance, societal activity with friends, official activity and household activity ( Crompton and Mckay, 1997 ) .
Research on touristry behaviour of the old people
Sing the old people, the research on elaborate behaviour of touristry is relatively fewer, chiefly concentrating on the difference of behaviour compared with others. Blazey ( 1992 ) has made a research on the relationship of touristry before and after retired, plus the use of touristry information of the old people. Lewiser Aiken ( 2001 ) has pointed out that friendly relationship is a networking, a mental support and a resource of information and amusement for the old people. Meanwhile, he pointed out that the old people are more dependable to acquire information from prints, such like newspaper and other magazines. Romsa and Blenman ( 1989 ) compared the difference of tourers aged below 50 and above 60 in German ; the consequence is that the touristry clip is more flexible for the people aged above 60.
Research on touristry market of the old people
The research market of the old people played a portion in the whole research, chiefly concentrating on how to pull the old people in touristry market. Charles Di?ZSchewe ( 1985 ) indicated that the ground to aim the old people in touristry market, as they have big possible and sustainable buying power. Francis et Al. ( 1988 ) sing the lifting figure of the old people in USA, it seeking to happen a manner to pull them for the touristry industry, and an information channel to assist them put up the holiday program.
In general, sing the touristry behaviour of the old people, the characteristics are: the chief influential factors are income and wellness ; besides clip, income, wellness age will act upon the length and clip of touristry ; the touristry clip will be cut down in conformity with the lifting age ; friendly relationship is an of import information resource for touristry ; touristry clip is flexible ; intent of touristry is for self-enjoyment.
2.4.2 The seniors travel market in China
Since 1999, our society became an aged society, the old people was the chief portion of society, which is besides played an of import portion in the touristry industry. The research of touristry behaviour for the old people started from 1990, in this instance, the research has been merely in the primary measure so far. The nucleus of research was the touristry industry of the old people with many consequences. However, the research of touristry behaviour ‘s characteristic of the old people is really few ( Liu, 2008 ) .
Research on the old people ‘s touristry
Though the experts have involved in this issue for non a long clip, there has some consequences. Wei ( 2001 ) thinks that the touristry inducement of the old people include wellness, civilization, history and remembering memory. The old people prefer cultural and historical metropoliss, and would wish to travel going with households, friends or chaps. Liu ( 2005 ) thinks that the influential factors on the old people ‘s shopping include friend, civilization, economic system, head and bosom and commercial environment.
Harmonizing to a research made by Yu ( 2003 ) , sing the old people in Jiangxi, they have big demand on wellness recovery touristry due to the jobs in wellness status. Their information channel is chiefly the traditional advertizement. Their manner to travel traveling is chiefly following the travel bureau. They prefer cultural and historical metropoliss and spend less than mean degree. Wang ( 1999 ) argues that the old people are in a pure shopping phase which is really rational and have high demand on quality of the merchandises than others. Casual ingestion and service ingestion takes large proportion.
Harmonizing to an analysis sing the old people ‘s touristry industry in Taiyuan made by Zhang ( 2006 ) , the going rate is higher for male than female, particularly among the people aged from 60-65. The touristry intents are chiefly for sightseeing, self-enjoyment and remembering memories ; the shopping degree are in-between degree, and the touristry clip are rarely in extremum season. A study sing the touristry of the old people in Shanghai, the rate of touristry is high with moderate clip. The intents of touristry are chiefly sightseeing and for wellness recovery which is really traditional. They spend money really carefully and will take to follow the travel bureau. They prefer transit of coach and train. The distance of touristry chiefly focuses on short or medium long. They prefer natural environment ( Hou, Yin and Chen, 2005 ) .
Besides a study sing the old people in Fuzhou, the rate of touristry is divided into two utmost degrees, high and low ; the disbursement clip of touristry is estimated to make one hebdomad. The intents of touristry are for sightseeing, wellness recovery or sing relations. They paid much attending on comfort, security and seldom ask for luxury adjustments. The transit is chiefly coach or train. They prefer going with spouses and fewer will follow the travel bureau. Security concern is the chief obstruction for touristry ( Tang, 2001 ) .
Harmonizing to an analysis sing the old people of Chongqing in touristry industry, athleticss touristry has the same intents with common touristry ; the intents are for wellness status, amusement and wellness recovery. The information channel is chiefly from company and relations. They prefer single traveling. The old people held a prudential attitude towards shopping. Male is the bulk to go to athleticss touristry. The rate of touristry is low for people aged above 65 ( Yang, 2003 ) .
The chief research methods are questionnaire and interview. The research of the old people ‘s touristry behaviour focuses on the inducement and penchant, going method, transit, information channel and disbursement cost. The characteristics of the old people ‘s behaviour are based on human ecology and influential factors of touristry behaviour.
Research on touristry industry of the old people
In the domestic research, the characteristic of the old people ‘s touristry market, feasibleness and enlargement scheme plays a large portion. Harmonizing to Li ( 2005 ) , sing the old people, there are 6 characteristics in touristry industry, such like enjoyment and prefer going at off-season. Li ( 2001 ) has made an analysis on the old people ‘s feasibleness in touristry industry, which including factors of buying power, inducement, aim, clip and wellness status. Xu and Chen ( 2001 ) proposed that it needs to concentrate on these factors to research the touristry market of the old people, including research, merchandises scheme, channel scheme and other publicities.
The research on the old people in touristry industry is mature, which has reached an understanding on characteristics on the old people in touristry industry, feasibleness, and development research and mature scheme. These consequences are important to the undermentioned research. However, these researches are limited due to miss of on-spot scrutiny ( Liu, 2008 ) .
In drumhead, characteristics of the old people in touristry industry are as follows: the intents are for self-enjoyment, sightseeing and wellness recovery ; natural scenery and historical sites are attractive ; travel clip is rarely in extremum season ; wellness status is better than earlier, and is able to go to some not-so-tough touristry ; relations and friends are the chief information channel ; fall ining going bureau is the chief manner to touristry ; prefer the touristry with household, friends and chaps ; keeping a prudential attitude towards going ; taking coach and train as the chief transit with high demands on going safety.
2.4.3 Researched the Nanjing seniors travel market
Consumers ‘ demand will trip him to shopping and make up one’s mind his shopping ‘s manner. After come ining into the old age, a individual has changed psychically with rich experiences in life and ingestion. Their ingestion behaviour is different with other ages, which is really specific and characteristic. This particular ingestion feature could be found in touristry motive, clip, mode and finish penchant and other comparative facets. Research on behaviour of the aged in touristry will lend to better understanding to their demand and will assist the enlargement of touristry industry for the aged ( Wei, no day of the month supplied ) .
Wei ( no day of the month supplied ) has researched the Nanjing seniors travel market and analysis several behaviours below:
22.214.171.124 Tourism motive
For the aged, they have a really memorable clip in the yesteryear. Though after old ages, they are willing to travel back to the topographic point where they have lived, or speak with the old friends to remind the old clip.
By and large the aged have more free clip, and most of their boies and girls live without them. Their boies and girls are busy at work, has small clip to take attention parents. What they can make is to see parents ‘ place on weekend and have some little talk. However, for those who work in other metropoliss, they can non be with their parents. In this instance, many old people feel lost and lonely. Therefore, touristry is able to fulfill their life and pull their attending.
For many old people, they merely heard the names of some celebrated touristry finish, but due to assorted grounds, there is no opportunity to travel at that place. Many old people want to travel going while the wellness status and economic system allow, they want to experience and cognize the chance of the outside universe.
Health and amusement
The life of old people is concentrating on household and wellness from old work. They choose to work out through touristry and amusement, to travel to the natures, for more fresh air, or to populate in suburb topographic point. Many obedient kids will set up household touristry ; some will drive their auto and convey parents together to travel on a short touristry to peripheral country. In the touristry, the old people will hold a batch of merriment.
Due to wellness restriction, the old people are non willing to travel going in winter or summer. They prefer spring or fall, chiefly in May, June, September, November ( Wang, 2003 ) . Because this period has proper temperature and humidness, it is good for travel, particularly for the aged. Due to limited budget and other grounds, by and large the old people are non willing to take a long trip, they prefer short or not-long trip. They want to pass a certain clip, such like one hebdomad.
In general, the old people need stableness and security in the touristry, and inquire for relax, freedom, comfort, and leisure. Most old people will take to follow going bureau. For the old peoplei??their energy is weaker than other immature tourers. Besides, they want to bask their no affair holiday or remainder, they want to to the full fulfill their demand for merriment, and do non desire to pay much attending for adjustments. They prefer fall ining travel bureau for the convenience.
Harmonizing to study, the intent of touristry of the old people is chiefly for the natural chance. The touristry with intent of wellness is more than pure touristry. It signified that due to the wellness status, the old people have more demand in healthy touristry. The touristry finish is closely tied with the age of touristry. The senior tourers prefer cultural finish. For the old tourer, they prefer celebrated mountain scenery and topographic points of involvement, particularly natural scenery and revolution scenic topographic point ( Qiu, 2006 ) . As people have different gustatory sensation to their pick, the old people have their ain pick in touristry. However, no affair where to travel, they will take security and convenience into consideration. In general, they prefer some topographic points with good environment, or celebrated cultural metropoliss, faith topographic points, and topographic points with common people usage. Besides they like the finishs with slow life beat, longstanding civilization and high position in history.
The old tourers are chiefly economical and keeping an economical attitude, necessitating comfort and security. They ask small about luxury life. Their ingestion awareness chiefly is practical and economical. Though the ingestion monetary value is lifting, excessively higher monetary value will halt their ingestion. Meanwhile, the fee is largely paid by the old people ‘s kids ; and they do non desire their kids to pay a large measure. They prefer economical touristry. Harmonizing to study, there are 17 % old people are in comfortable economic system status with lifting demand for touristry, nevertheless, another 70 % old people who has demand for touristry but they need the economical one ( Liu, 2007 ) .
As the old people get retired, they have plentifulness of clip. By and large talking, the old people are a group who spend longest clip in touristry, with an mean twenty-four hours of 10.3, which keeps lifting ( Hu, 2002 ) . As the old people have more clip to go, they will pass more in amusement and adjustment. Particularly they have important potency in shopping.
Harmonizing to Valerie ( 1997 ) , puting up and proving a hypothesis is an indispensable portion of statistical illation. In order to make a trial of a hypothesis, the starting point is to show a theory that is either believed to be true or is intended to be used as the footing for an statement. The purpose of utilizing a hypothesis here is to look into the existent sensed impact of the touristry industry in Huairou. Generally speech production, a hypothesis is a type of anticipation which will non ever turn out to be accurate, depending on the facts of the peculiar instance. So, all of the anticipations must be tested and proven ( or disproved ) utilizing informations analysis and/or farther probe.
The hypotheses are based on a reappraisal of the anterior literature, and the hypotheses have two parts.