Television Violence Essay, Research Paper
& # 8220 ; The relationship between force on the screen and force in existent life is highly complicated. But while the relationship may non be that of direct cause and consequence, we must bear it in head. Violent programmes may deject some people, daze others, de-sensitise some and promote imitation by a few. & # 8221 ;
( BBC Handbook-Guidelines for T.V Producers Regarding Violence and Censorship )
The media is all around us and for this ground I feel it is inevitable that it will hold some kind of consequence on us. Television is the most popular and accessible signifier of media ; everybody has at least one telecasting set in their place. It is besides said to be the most graphic portraitist of the universe. Screen force is a term given to violence seen in telecasting programmes, pictures and film ; fundamentally any force viewed on a screen. What causes a job when debating screen force is how we define and step force, as different people have different readings of what is violent. Some sorts of & # 8216 ; violent & # 8217 ; activity are labelled as & # 8216 ; violent & # 8217 ; others as & # 8216 ; war gallantry & # 8217 ; .
Everybody interprets and responds to the media in different ways. The & # 8216 ; subcutaneous syringe & # 8217 ; or & # 8216 ; effects & # 8217 ; theoretical account is a theory, which concentrates on the negative effects of the media i.e. what the media & # 8216 ; does to us & # 8217 ; . The power is believed to lie with the media and footings such as & # 8216 ; the mass media & # 8217 ; or & # 8216 ; mass communications & # 8217 ; are frequently used to underscore the size and graduated table of media operations. It believes in a inactive audience and high spots certain groups of people as being more vulnerable than others are. Children, people who are mentally sick, adult females, and the on the job category are the named groups because they are either evidently vulnerable ( i.e. kids and the mentally sick ) , or exposed to the media much more than other groups of people ( i.e. adult females and the on the job category ) . I agree with this every bit far as kids and the mentally sick are concerned because they have small control over what they are exposed to and are non selective viewing audiences. However, the other groups mentioned are non as vulnerable, as they are able to make up one’s mind for themselves what they watch and can make their ain sentiments about it. There are two cardinal effects that this theory believes can be induced in an audience:
Inactivity- the couch murphy
Manic activity- where the audience imitates what they have seen, i.e. imitator offense ( frequently related to force )
There are of class jobs with this theory. It over-simplifies and assumes that everybody is inactive and vulnerable to the media, which evidently is a generalization, and International Relations and Security Network & # 8217 ; t true. Many experiments have been set up over the old ages, to seek and turn out or confute such theories of audience battle. One such experiment ( which is now a much-criticised piece of research ) was called the & # 8216 ; Bobo doll experiment & # 8217 ; , conducted by Bandura and Walters in 1963. It involved demoing a group of kids a movie of grownups moving violently towards a doll, and so go forthing the kids entirely with the doll. The kids were recorded moving in a similar manner to what they had seen, which was said to turn out that kids copy what they see. The research was flawed in many ways. Peoples ( particularly kids ) are frequently willing to delight those carry oning the experiments, and have a sense of what behavior is expected of them. Besides, a research lab is a really different environment to the 1 in which we normally interact with the media.
The & # 8216 ; utilizations and satisfaction & # 8217 ; theoretical account was founded in the USA in the 1940 & # 8217 ; s. It is one that disregards the pessimistic attack of the & # 8216 ; subcutaneous syringe & # 8217 ; theory, and alternatively focal points on the & # 8216 ; active & # 8217 ; audience, an audience who is able to & # 8216 ; usage & # 8217 ; the media to its ain advantage. The power here lies with the single consumer, who is imagined as utilizing the media to satisfy certain demands and involvements. In his book Media Analysis Techniques, Arthur Asa Berger provides a list of 24 things that the media may offer to make and what we as audiences may take from media merchandises. The utilizations that I feel are relevant to this essay include:
1. To be amused
7. To happen distraction and recreation
9. To see, in a guilt-free and controlled state of affairs, utmost conditions such as love and hatred, the atrocious and the awful, and similar phenomena.
10. To happen theoretical accounts to copy
I feel that the last & # 8216 ; usage & # 8217 ; on the list above could hold both positive and negative deductions. Role theoretical accounts are utile every bit long as they are shown acting in a positive mode. However, if a kid proverb Brad Pitt as a function theoretical account, and so watched a movie such as Fight Club that contains really physical and violent scenes, he/she would believe that if Brad Pitt is allowed to make it so it must be alright for them to make. Young kids are non able to separate fiction from world in the manner that grownups can. The jobs with the & # 8216 ; utilizations and satisfactions & # 8217 ; theory is it suggests that everybody is capable of understanding what they watch, which is blandishing to an audience ; we are more likely to desire to place ourselves as active readers. However it & # 8216 ; pigeonholes & # 8217 ; everyone into one group and wholly ignores the evidently vulnerable groups such as kids. It seems to bury that people come from different backgrounds, have different sums of cognition about things and live in really different societal contexts.
& # 8220 ; what we understand and believe about the telecasting message is & # 8216 ; influenced by our ain personal history, political civilization and category experience & # 8221 ; ( Philo )
The & # 8216 ; utilizations and satisfactions & # 8217 ; theory and the & # 8216 ; subcutaneous syringe & # 8217 ; theory represent the two extremes of audience battle with the media. What is needed is a theory that takes a in-between land between the two.
One of the greatest concerns associated with screen force is the thought that there is a connexion between violent scenes in the media and & # 8216 ; existent & # 8217 ; offenses. The term given to this thought is & # 8216 ; copy-cat offense & # 8217 ; . & # 8216 ; Copy-cat offense & # 8217 ; is an thought associated with the & # 8216 ; subcutaneous syringe & # 8217 ; theory and the peculiar consequence described as & # 8216 ; frenzied activity & # 8217 ; . This is when person who has committed a serious offense is said to hold been influenced and inspired by a media merchandise such as a movie. An illustration of this is the slaying of James Bulger by two immature male childs. After the killing it & # 8216 ; emerged & # 8217 ; that they had watched Child & # 8217 ; s Play 3 prior to their offense, and hence the movie was felt to be partially to fault.
& # 8220 ; The unthinkable sub-text to the slaying of small James Bulger is? Kthe concern that we have created a coevals of anti-social immature people who have grown up with a telecasting set as their best friend? Kwith picture nasties, force and sensational sex as the material of mundane life, in a universe which offers small expressed moral counsel & # 8221 ;
( Mary Whitehouse- The Telegraph )
A Clockwork Orange is another illustration of a movie that has been linked to a offense. When it foremost came out, a group of work forces gang raped a adult female in an evident transcript of a scene in the movie. The movie shaper, Stanley Kubrick, later withdrew the movie because he was annoyed at the critical response it had received. This imitator consequence is non merely associated with serious offenses such as the 1s I have mentioned. When the & # 8216 ; You & # 8217 ; ve been Tangoed & # 8217 ; publicizing run was launched, one of the adverts in peculiar caused major concern. It showed work forces in orange suits running about slapping eachother around the ears and express joying about it. This was an advert aimed at kids to do them purchase Tango, nevertheless the consequence that it had was to do kids to copy what they had seen ( because it was shown as being amusing and harmless ) , and slap other kids around the ears. This became a job as it caused kids to endure pierced tympanums as a consequence. This emphasises the thought that kids are peculiarly vulnerable, and hence merchandises aimed at kids should be really carefully considered.
S. Cohen carried out the first sociological analysis of a moral terror in 1972, about the Modss and Rockers ; a terror about what was go oning to British young persons in the 1960 & # 8217 ; s. A moral terror is when everything is blamed on the media and society worri
Es about people’s behaviors due to media exposure. I feel that people panic and fault the media in order to happen some manner of warranting the behavior of such people. Peoples find it far less awful to believe that person in society has committed a offense because of the influence of a ‘video nasty’ , than to believe that they did it because of the kind of individual they are.
& # 8220 ; the moral terror about telecasting force may debar attending off from other possible causes of societal agitation? K & # 8221 ; ( pg14, The Media Studies Book- A Guide for Teachers )
I feel that the above quotation mark is really true, and I feel that it is of import non to fault the media but to look at other lending issues and factors. When a moral terror occurs, people think that it must be a general societal consequence when it is more likely to be a aberrant minority. Moral terrors frequently lead to fastening up of movie categorization by the British Board of Film Classification ( B.B.F.C. )
Watersheds and movie categorizations play a large function in the consequence of the media, as they are at that place to regulate what is suited for people to watch. If it wasn & # 8217 ; T for these controls, I feel that the media would hold a much wider societal consequence. The water parting is the 9pm polar point of flushing telecasting. The programmes before the watershed must ever be suited for sing by kids and the earlier they are, the more suited they must be. This means that programme shapers should ever take into history the clip that their programme is being transmitted when sing the content. Scenes of force may good do a programme unsuitable for pre- 9pm placing. Often the voice that introduces the following programme will alarm viewing audiences if it contains content that is violent, sexual or straitening. As the undermentioned quotation mark says:
& # 8220 ; Forewarned is forearmed, and with clear information, viewing audiences can and make exert their pick & # 8221 ; ( Will Wyatt )
The BBFC is a private company, set up by the movie industry because of frights of authorities control. The board was one time really close about their operations but now they conduct a batch of market research to happen out what audiences think and print the grounds for their actions sing movie controls, on their web-site. They have besides become a batch more relaxed, and movies that have been antecedently banned such as A Clockwork Orange and Natural Born Killers, have now had their prohibitions lifted. Controls over movies frequently depend on what is go oning at the clip, and this is besides true of telecasting programmes. An illustration of this is the recent limitations on movies demoing Acts of the Apostless of terrorist act, due to the tragic events in America. Sensitivity is really of import at such times. Concern over immature people & # 8217 ; s entree to violent pictures rose in the early 1990 & # 8217 ; s. A figure of extremely publicized offenses of aggression in which a violent movie was implicated ( most notably the linking of the James Bulger slaying with a picture, Child & # 8217 ; s Play 3 ) resulted in farther limitations being enacted in 1994. The BBFC now has to take into history the psychological impact of picture on kids and the possibility that they will show inappropriate function theoretical accounts. As I have already mentioned, inappropriate function theoretical accounts can be really damaging for kids.
I feel that force in computing machine games is going a batch more of a job than it one time was. Due to the addition in engineering, computing machine games are now more like movies, with really realistic looking characters and scenes. An illustration of such a game is Grand Theft Auto 3 for the Playstation 2. It is a controversial game in which you & # 8216 ; become & # 8217 ; the adult male who is able to run people over, shoot people and become involved in constabulary pursuits. It is really in writing, as when you run over person it shows blood and plays a realistic sound. The game was banned in Australia as it was deemed excessively violent. In Britain it has been given an 18 certification, but I feel that this won & # 8217 ; t prevent kids from being able to play it. They will merely borrow it from person older. I don? ? T feel that certifications on games are every bit restrictive as they are on movies.
The intelligence can be regarded as the most violent programme in the telecasting agenda, and the world of what is being shown can do it peculiarly upseting for an audience. On September 11th, the terrorist onslaughts in America and their wake were broadcast unrecorded on the intelligence all twenty-four hours, and on every channel. This meant that people were witnessing the most violent act the universe has of all time seen, at first manus. I feel that this kind of screening is bound to hold an consequence on an audience, but I feel that the effects can be both positive and negative. On the one manus, the intelligence should floor viewing audiences. The force that everyone witnessed could hold the consequence of educating people about how atrocious terrorist act and force is and how many lives can be devastated by it. It can besides assist us to sympathize with the people involved. On the other manus there is the hazard that excessively much force being shown could either do people to go more fearful of the universe they live in or desensitised to force. Both of these effects could damage peoples & # 8217 ; quality of life. It must be considered that the more viewing audiences are shocked the more it will take to floor them.
I will now discourse the possible positive and negative effects of the movie The Terminator. The Exterminator was made in the 1880ss, at a clip where people were afraid of progresss in engineering. The bionic man in the movie is a machine that looks human, which could besides reflect the fright about developments in medical scientific discipline. I feel that The Terminator could hold the consequence of doing people feel that they have a ground to be afraid of engineering, and could therefore do them more fearful of the universe they live in. I feel that the movie goes a long manner to forestall imitation because it makes it clear that he is a machine by demoing him taking his oculus. This will forestall people placing with his character and hence cut down the opportunity of imitator offense. Violence is presented as futile in the movie, which is a positive thing. The machine is eventually defeated by the intelligence of the female supporter, Sarah, who would supply a positive function theoretical account for females. The psychotherapeutic component is besides deserving sing, as the movie would let go of aggression within the audience and give them a opportunity to see force in a safe environment.
To reason this essay, I feel it is virtually impossible to mensurate the effects of force in the media, as the media can non be isolated from all other possible influences in society. I agree that kids and the mentally sick are vulnerable and should ever be protected by movie categorizations and water partings, so that they do non see unsuitable stuff. Parents should besides be responsible adequate to do certain their kids do non see unsuitable stuff on the telecasting. I don & # 8217 ; t think that it is the content of the media that causes people to perpetrate offenses, but more to make with the unstable or vulnerable person who is non able to separate fiction from world. The media doesn & # 8217 ; t tell people to travel out and commit offenses but it could trip psychological jobs within a individual or bring forth assorted messages which people wrongly interpret. Most responsible grownups are able to separate fiction from world and accommodate what they are sing with their ain beliefs and personal experience. Most people take a & # 8216 ; in-between manner & # 8217 ; , and merely & # 8216 ; take in & # 8217 ; what they agree with, ignoring the remainder. I feel that the media is ever traveling to be connected with negativeness and regarded as powerful, but for most people it merely every bit powerful as we allow it to be.
BibliographyArticles: Wyatt, Will, & # 8216 ; The Problem of Violence & # 8217 ; , BBC Handbook- Guidelines for T.V Producers Regarding Violence and Censorship
Books: BBC Handbook- Guidelines for T.V Producers Regarding Violence and Censorship
Lusted, David, The Media Studies Book- A Guide for Teachers ( London: Routledge, 1991 )
Asa Berger, Arthur, Media Analysis Techniques ( CA: Sage, 1999, 2nd Ed. )
FilmographyChild & # 8217 ; s Play 3 & # 8211 ; Universal Pictures, 1991
Clockwork Orange, A & # 8211 ; Warner Bros. , 1971
Natural Born Killers
Exterminator, The & # 8211 ; MGM, 1984