Malaysia is an attractive touristry finish which offers a broad scope of touristry chance. Tourist can see in different type of activities including cultural, nature, urban, beach resort, island or Highlandss. Tourism sector generated RM 53.40 million in 2009 and it is expected to continually turn in 2010. This enables touristry as one of the of import sectors lending to the Malaysia ‘s economic system. In conformity with the declaration of the Comprehensive Development Plan ( CDP ) as the construction program for Iskandar Malaysia in Johor Bahru, Johor Bahru metropolis Centre will be developed as a urban vivacious metropolis. One of the aims from the development program is to conserve heritage value and historical edifices in Johor for accomplishing holistic development. Conserving and continuing heritage and historical country non merely critical in inheriting traditional civilization but it could besides function as attractive forces for heritage touristry ( Hollinshead, 1988 ) .
1.2 Problem Statement
Quickly growing of economic system stimulates development of metropoliss. In order to get by with the job of urban metropolis image and intensive land usage, cultural and historical edifices in the center of the metropolis are used to be sacrificed to give manner to the modern designed high-rise edifices. However, there was a contrast in urban development recently whereby as a consequence from the turning of urban competition, planetary metropolis formation and nomadic capital flows, the more alone, typical and particular a metropolis is, the more likely it has to win ( Askew & A ; Logan, 1994 ; Yuen, 2005 ) . This changes lead to the tendency of heritage and historical preservation to specify individuality of the community. This state of affairs is best shown by the development policy implemented by Singapore in the early 1970s and late seventiess ( Lee, 1996 ) . In the early 1970s, dilapidated shophouses in the Central Area of Singapore were demolished to do manner for modern high-rise edifices. However, by late of 1970s, the authorities policy shifted from renovation to preservation. Transformation and alterations in urban development shows the of import of heritage preservation for the interest of urban competition and planetary metropolis formation.
Though preservation is of import to keep cultural value of heritage and historical edifice, yet, the construct of preservation should non simply concentrate on the physical heritage preservation but should included the intangible portion of heritage value in which is best illustrated by the local community activities. Yuen ( 2005 ) explained both landmarks in the reinforced environment and general civilization of a topographic point contribute to formation of topographic point individualities and vicinities. A heritage site is simply a historical relic or important landmark of a finish. However, if there is connexion between the local community and the physical edifices, it would convey a life to the site and finally make individuality and sense of topographic point in the locality. Jonker ‘s Walk in Malacca is best index for sense of topographic point and individuality of the locality, besides as the Urban Heritage. Harmonizing to Shuhana, 2004, street represents people ‘s perceptual experience of metropolis character and individuality. This is because since the early civilisation happened in the universe, human used to set up and develop their community get downing from street. Street is said to be another chief properties demoing local individuality as socio-economy activities evolves bit by bit until it forms today metropolis. In brief, urban preservation comprises of both retaining the historical edifices physically and rapid Restoration to heighten ethic-based activities to make strong sense of topographic point and topographic point individuality of a metropolis ( Lee, 1996 ) .
Johor Bahru metropolis has been awarded its metropolis position in 1994. Power ( 2001 ) described metropolis Centre as a topographic point of cultural magnets, singular edifices, attractive streets, public assets and societal assets centered. Johor Bahru metropolis Centre is a vivacious metropolis where major economic activities, administrative organisations and singular historical edifices converged. Over old ages of urban development, the Johor State Government has decided to take enterprises for Johor Bahru metropolis greening in order to renew the metropolis.
Iskandar Malaysia ( once known as Iskandar Development Region, IDR and South Johor Economic Region, SJER ) was launched on 30 July 2006. It is one of the five economic development corridors established under the 9th Malaysia Plan. The schemes of put to deathing the regional economic development program are carried out through the Comprehensive Development Plan, CDP. The Comprehensive Development Plan lays on the 10 rules of Islam Hadhari ( Civilization Islam ) taking in accomplishing holistic and sustainable development in the part.
The execution of legion investing and development undertakings in line with the Iskandar Malaysia in Johor province purposes in accomplishing holistic and sustainable socio-economic development laid on the 10 Islam Hadhari ( Civilization Islam ) rules. Besides that, the aims of the Johor Bahru City Transformation Plan as one of the development undertakings under 10th Malaysia Plan, is to transform Johor Bahru metropolis into a modern and dynamic urban Centre through betterment on substructures, public utilities, waterway cleaning and security. Both undertakings portion one similarity that is betterment on substructures and public comfortss.
The transmutation program besides focuses on conserving and continuing the interior metropolis of Johor Bahru as one of the schemes in accomplishing the aim. Bing the State Capital for about 155 old ages, Johor Bahru metropolis Centre is abounded with the alone features of multiethnic civilizations and impressive historical edifices. Such historical edifice includes State Secretariat Building ( Bangunan Sultan Ibrahim ) , Grand Palace and Royal Abu Bakar Musuem, Railway Station Keretapi Tanah Melayu Bhd ( KTMB ) , Sultan Abu Bakar Mosque, Jahor Bahru Chinese Heritage Musuem, Johor Chinese Old Temple and more than 200 old shophouses ( pre-war edifice ) within the Johor Bahru interior metropolis. These edifices serve as important landmark of the metropolis. Harmonizing to the Comprehensive Development Plan, Johor Bahru metropolis Centre will be earlier designated as heritage precinct.
However, harmonizing to Shackley ( 1998 ) , over-use of heritage assets can trip physical impairment ; harm its touchable and intangible values which will finally cut down tourer experience. Mckercher ( 2001 ) responded to Shackley statement by adding significance to its contrast, under-use can take to missing ability to coevals of gross for preservation work or a loss of local support for keeping the assets attraction, peculiarly if public resources are needed to back up its operation. This issue has been loosely discussed and studied in which nexus to the heritage touristry direction and urban direction construct.
Millar ( 1989 ) explained the construct of heritage touristry direction is about saving of alone properties of heritage sites to enable the properties to be continually attractive to the tourers. Mc Grill ( 1998 ) clarified the aims in urban direction which is to be after for provide and keep a metropolis ‘s substructure and services and to guarantee that it is in a fit province. The thought merges from both constructs is that, it is of import to pull off the heritage site in order to maintain and keep the attraction of the heritage assets. The cultural value and physical value of the historical relics is closely related. Bing the representors of the yesteryear, it is of import that the representors tell and present as what it should hold to, enable tourers to experience the existent historical experience.
In order to continue and conserve the heritage value, the term “ urban preservation ” and “ urban direction ” has been introduced in 1950s and 1960s through the literature. Steinberg ( 1996 ) identified five major facets in urban preservation which are political facet, cultural facet, societal facet, economic facet and urbanisation facet. In Wong et Al ( 2006 ) survey, six listed standards for urban direction for metropolis development: betterment in physical conditions, economically feasible, socially just, culturally sustainable, environmentally sustainable and institutionally feasible so has a really same significance of the five facets proposed by Steinberg ( 1996 ) , for betterment in physical conditions and environmental sustainable can be classified as urbanisation facet whilst institutionally feasible can be classified as political facet. Both surveies emphasized on the same facets. This shows that every facet is important in success of urban preservation and demand to be considered when carried out the preservation schemes to guarantee it run into the aims of urban preservation for regeneration intent. Although past research has been done on the important of each facet towards urban preservation and urban direction, yet, there is no research done in analyzing the feasibleness of transforming Johor Bahru interior metropolis as a cultural touristry metropolis utilizing the abovementioned facets.
Although there are attempts putted on the preservation of heritage and historical value of Johor Bahru interior metropolis by the province authorities through series of proposed program. However, it is of import for the local community ( stakeholder of the peculiar country ) to be cognizant and act providentially towards the authorities planning. The research inquiry from the treatment is whether the Johor Bahru interior metropolis is executable to be developed as Cultural Tourism City?
1.3 Research Aims
Based on the research inquiries above, the aim of the survey is as the followers: –
To reexamine the feasibleness facets of urban preservation and rehabilitation.
To look into the feasibleness of transforming Johor Bahru interior metropolis as a Cultural Tourism City.
1.4 Scope of Study
The research country will merely concentrate on Johor Bahru interior metropolis country merely.
The targeted respondents are different in every phase of informations collect. However, the targeted respondents can be summarized as panel of expert, local authorization officers, Iskandar Development Region Authority ( IDRA ) officers and local stakeholders of Johor Bahru interior metropolis.
1.5 Significance of Study
Upon completeness of the research, it will lend to the academic and cognition with the application of urban preservation, town planning, installations direction and touristry direction in sustainable and holistic development of historical interior metropolis in an urban metropolis. The research will add value to the bing cognition by uncovering the practicableness of integrating the theoretical cognition in the existent universe. Furthermore, completeness of the survey is important to the State Government, local authorization and touristry decision makers as it serves as counsel for implementing development and betterment relevant schemes in relation on transforming the metropolis. Besides, it is important to the existent estate professionals because they will be cognizant on the alterations of land usage and zoning of the metropolis country which will finally impact the market value of the environing belongings. On the other manus, installation direction squads will be alarm on the demand for conserving and keeping old edifices in Johor Bahru metropolis Centre country. Last, the local community will be good from the research as upon the completion of the research, local community will be cognizant on the of import of their function in lending to the attempt of preservation of Johor Bahru interior metropolis. This is because planning is a failure if the local themselves are guiltless on the current personal businesss and development to be carried in their country.
1.6 Research Methodology
This survey is divided into five phases in order to take the writer to accomplish the research objectives. The flow of this research is shown in the Figure 1.1
Phase 1: Research Background
The chief intent of this phase is to place and bring forth a conceptual construction of the survey. Topic of the survey is foremost identified. Issue related to the subject is discussed and reviewed with back uping facts. Next, the aims and range of survey is determined. Last, significance of the survey as to whom and how it is good is identified.
Phase 2: Literature Reappraisal
Theoretical information on features that define cultural touristry and urban preservation is gathered and reviewed. Fundamental for urban preservation and urban direction is reviewed through literature in order to obtain the model and construct for the subject. Besides that, brief debut on historical background of selected sites will be introduced in this phase. The related information can be obtained through diaries, conference proceedings, undergraduate and graduate student undertaking and related mentions books. This secondary information serves as the basic in back uping the survey and fixing the questionnaires. The five facets which are political facet, cultural facet, societal facet, economic facet and urbanisation facet in urban preservation revealed from past research will be used as cardinal for appellation of questionnaires.
Phase 3: Datas Collection
Collection of primary informations sing urban preservation and land usage schemes of urban development in transforming Johor Bahru interior metropolis will be done through multi-approach technique. Data aggregation will be carried out in several phases to garner relevant informations for survey of five different urban preservation for cultural touristry facets which are political, cultural, societal, economic and urbanization facets severally. Expert judgement, interview, observation and questionnaires will be utilized to garner informations. An open-ended questionnaire, together with the Comprehensive Development Plan will be used to obtain adept judgement. Structured inquiries for interview will be designed for construction interview. Questionnaires will besides be designed and distributed to the local stakeholders in the survey country. Observation will be done on the survey country to look into and make stock list of historical edifice in the survey country.
Phase 4: Datas Analysis
Main undertaking in this phase is to analyse informations gathered from the study. Datas obtained from the interview would be analyzed utilizing both quantitative and qualitative technique. Datas obtained from interviews will be analyzed qualitatively by utilizing thematic analysis. Whilst informations obtained from questionnaires study will be analyzed quantitatively through descriptive analysis, cross tabular matter and frequence analysis. Findingss from analysis will so be discussed to place the feasibleness of the Johor Bahru interior metropolis to be developed as cultural touristry country.
Phase 5: Decision and Recommendation
Decision for findings in the survey will be made in this phase. Strength of Johor Bahru interior metropolis to be developed as cultural touristry metropolis will be highlighted in the decision. Suggestions on get bying failing ( if any ) of the interior metropolis will besides be focused at the terminal of this phase. Future recommendation will be stated at the terminal.
1.7 Summary of Research Methodology
Determine the subject, issue, aims, range and significance of the survey.
( I ) Research background
Topic, issue, aims, range and significance of the survey are identified.
Define cultural touristry and urban preservation ; reviewed construct and cardinal for urban preservation.
Relevant constructs and fundamental of cultural touristry and urban preservation are reviewed.
Identify targeted respondents ; design and distribute questionnaires ; interview panel of expert.
Response from targeted respondent are collected.
Analyze informations and discourse the findings.
Datas are analyzed and discussed. Strength and failing of the survey country identified.
Conclude the findings ; do recommendations and suggestions.
Decision and Recommendation
The findings are concluded ; recommendations and suggestions are stated.
1.8 Chapter Agreement
The survey consists of six chapters. The agreement of the chapters is as follow: –
Chapter 1: Introduction
Introduction to the subject and research background is discussed in this chapter. The job statement sing the research subject, aims of the survey, range of survey, significance of the survey, research methodological analysis and chapters arrangement were highlighted in the chapter.
Chapter 2: Urban Conservation and Cultural Tourism
Theoretical information on definition and account of urban preservation and cultural touristry is foremost discussed. Fundamental for urban preservation and urban direction is gathered through literature reappraisal. Detailss on the five facets in urban preservation and urban direction for cultural touristry will be discussed in deep in this chapter.
Chapter 3: Case Study: Johor Bahru City Centre
This chapter is focused on the debut of the historical background of Johor Bahru metropolis Centre, brief description on the tourer reaching tendencies and the kernel of Comprehensive Development Plan of Johor State. Historical edifices and cultural finishs in the Johor Bahru interior metropolis will be introduced at the terminal of the chapter.
Chapter 4: Research Methodology
Detail description on research methodological analysis used in this survey is discussed in the chapter. The description on research design, research procedure, informations aggregation attack, respondents ‘ choice and informations analysis method is focused in this chapter. Author will utilize multi-approach technique ( adept judgement, interviews, observation and questionnaires ) to garner relevant informations. Both quantitative and qualitative analysis will be utilized for informations analysis. Qualitative analysis ( thematic analysis ) will be used to analyse informations obtained from interview whilst quantitative analysis ( descriptive analysis, cross tabular matter and frequence analysis ) will be used to analyse informations obtained from questionnaires study.
Chapter 5: Datas Analysis and Findingss
Data collected is being analyzed utilizing relevant analysis tools and analysis techniques. Findingss will be presented utilizing relevant mold technique to develop better apprehension towards the result of the survey. Discussion on the findings is the chief focused in this chapter. At the terminal of the chapter, strengths and failings of Johor Bahru interior metropolis to be developed as a cultural touristry metropolis will be identified.
Chapter 6: Decision and Recommendation
Decision from the findings will be made to confirm whether the findings achieve aim of the survey. Suggestions and recommendation in get bying the failings ( if any ) will be made at the terminal of the survey.