Volstead Act Issues Essay, Research Paper
In the 1920 & # 8217 ; s and 1930 & # 8217 ; s a new moving ridge of offense had swept across the U.S. With the transition of the Volstead Act in 1920, bring forthing and administering intoxicant became an highly moneymaking concern. With this besides came a crisp rise in organized offense in many of the large metropoliss. Even worse, the offenses committed by members of these packs became more violent. In July of 1933, J. Edgar Hoover was made the manager of the freshly formed FBI. Hoover decided that he was traveling to check down on these felons. Hoover chose to take high and went after the caputs of the offense packs. The job was that, no Oklahoman did they pull off to imprison the bad cats when their brothers in the offense organisations would break them out. With this job in head, the U.S. Justice Department began looking into a maximal security prison that was unaccessible and thereby ineluctable. When they found Alcatraz, it was about excessively good to be true.
October 12, 1933- The U.S. Justice Department officially acquired Alcatraz from the military with programs to integrate Alcatraz into the Bureau of Prisons.
April, 1934- Work began on Alcatraz to do the cellhouse more secure by replacing soft-iron square bars on the cells with rounded & # 8220 ; tool-proof & # 8221 ; bars. In add-on, a new lockup device was installed which allowed guards to open selected cells within a block. Metallic element sensors were installed on the dock and at the entryway to the cellhouse. Additionally, three new guard towers ( right ) were constructed to maintain a birds oculus position of the activities on the island.
Most of the military captives were released or transferred anterior to command of the island exchanging custodies, in June of 1934. However, 32 of the military & # 8217 ; s worst felons remained on the island and became the first inmates of the U.S. Penitentiary, Alcatraz.
July 1, 1934- The U.S. Penitentiary, Alcatraz, officially opened with James A. Johnston, a retired California province prison functionary, as its first warden. At its origin, Alcatraz employed 52 full-time correctional officers, the most of any prison in the system.
Warden Johnston decided that the end of Alcatraz was non traveling to be rehabilitation, but instead, it would be punishment to its inmates for the wrongs they had committed. Inmates were non permitted to hold newspapers, wirelesss, or magazines. In add-on, it was decided that all incoming mail would be type-written by corrections officers, so that coded messages contained in the original letters could non be received by the inmates. A silence regulation was put into consequence except in the diversion pace and the dining room. Basically, Alcatraz was slated to be a limited privilege prison, intending & # 8220 ; You are entitled to nutrient, vesture, shelter, and medical attending. Anything else you get is a privilege. & # 8221 ; ( Number 5, Alcatraz Prison Rules and Regulations )
However, Warden Johnston besides realized that he was covering with some of the most unsafe captives in America, so some grants had to be made to head off the possibility of an inmate rebellion. As a consequence, Alcatraz & # 8217 ; s inmates enjoyed a top-rated prison cafeteria. The bill of fare was diverse, including salads, fresh fruit, and on occasion, sweets. In add-on, seconds on nutrient were allowed. The nutrient served on Alcatraz was said to be the best in the Federal Prison system. Prisoners besides enjoyed a well-stocked library in the cellhouse and higher allocations of coffin nails than any other prison.
One of the prison & # 8217 ; s most ill-famed inmates arrived on Alcatraz shortly after the island began operations as a federal prison. On August 22, 1934, Al Capone, along with 52 other inmates, was transferred to the island, under heavy security, from a prison in Atlanta, Georgia. Despite Capone & # 8217 ; s ill fame, his stay on Alcatraz was surprisingly uneventful.
Shortly after Capone & # 8217 ; s reaching, another ill-famed mobster was transferred to Alcatraz. On September 4, 1934, George & # 8220 ; Machine Gun & # 8221 ; Kelly arrived on the island.
The first flight effort from Alcatraz occurred on April 27, 1936. Joseph Bowers was functioning a 25-year sentence for robbery. Although he stole merely $ 16 dollars, the shop happened to house the town & # 8217 ; s station office, thereby doing it a federal discourtesy. Bowers was trying to scale the fencing environing the cell house when a guard noticed him. Three warning shootings were fired, one of which struck Arbors in the side, doing him to lose his clasp on the fencing and autumn to his decease, 60 pess below.
The undermentioned twelvemonth, two more work forces attempted flight from the island. In the afternoon of December 16, 1937, Theodore Cole, functioning clip for snatch, and Ralph Roe, functioning clip for bank robbery, broke through a window in the mat store, sawed their manner through the fencing and made it to the bay. The prison launched several boats to seek the environing Waterss, but there was no mark of Cole or Roe. It is believed that they drowned in the cold Waterss of San Francisco Bay.
Six months subsequently, three more work forces made a audacious elan for freedom that resulted in the first correctional officer decease on the island. James Lucas, Thomas Limmerick and Rufus Franklin were working in the wood store on May 23, 1938, when they made their effort. They took a cock from the store and struck the officer in charge on the caput, killing him immediately. Another officer in a nearby guard tower noticed the work forces darting down an embankment and fired upon them. Limmerick was shot in the caput and killed. The other two work forces surrendered and were subsequently convicted of first grade slaying for the decease of the guard they had attacked.
January 13, 1939- For a period of about two old ages, five work forces ( William Martin, Dale Stamphill, Henri Young, Rufus McCain and Ar
thur “Doc” Barker ) had been easy sawing their manner through the bars on their lone parturiency cells in “D” block ( illustration: right ) . Unlike the remainder of the prison, the bars in “D” block had non been converted from soft-iron bars to “tool-proof” bars. In the early forenoon hours of January 13, the work forces successfully removed a saloon from each of their cells, used a home-made spreader to portion the “tool-proof” bars on the window and made their manner out of the cellhouse. Within 30 proceedingss, the empty cells had been discovered and a hunt was launched. When they were discovered on the bouldery shores, Martin rapidly surrendered. Barker, Stamphill, McCain and Young made a tally for it, but were stopped by gunshot. Barker was shot in the caput and died, while Stamphill was somewhat wounded in the leg. The other two surrendered without hurt. As penalty, McCain and Young were sent to “dark cells” , lone parturiency units with steel doors that left the inmate in complete darkness 24 hours a twenty-four hours, except for a 10 minute shower one time a hebdomad.
November 1940- After about two old ages in dark lone parturiency, Young and McCain were released into the regular prison population. Within a hebdomad of release, Young stabbed McCain to decease in the seamster store on the island. Young was tried for slaying, but his defence lawyer claimed that his old ages on Alcatraz, peculiarly his clip in dark lone parturiency, had drove Young to the threshold of insanity. The jury agreed with Young and found him guilty merely of manslaughter.
As a consequence of the Young test, the Bureau of Prisons launched an probe into the conditions on Alcatraz. While the probe refused to province that conditions on the island were awful, it did urge that & # 8220 ; D & # 8221 ; block be renovated. Money was allocated by the Bureau and work began instantly to do the & # 8220 ; intervention units & # 8221 ; less distressing.
After holding spent over 33 old ages in prison, another one of Alcatraz & # 8217 ; s celebrated inmates was transferred to the island in 1942. As a job captive from Leavenworth, Robert & # 8220 ; The Birdman of Alcatraz & # 8221 ; Stroud spent his full stay in lone parturiency.
May 2, 1946- One of the most audacious flight efforts began on this twenty-four hours and ended three yearss subsequently with two officers and three of the escapees dead. The Siege of & # 8216 ; 46 was the bloodiest flight effort to happen on Alcatraz. After such a bloody flight effort, it would be another 10 old ages before anyone attempted to get away once more.
Over the class of the following 10 old ages, things remained quiet on Alcatraz. Warden Johnston retired in 1948 and was replaced by another former corrections officer, Edwin Swope. Changing wardens was tough on the captives because it took clip to come to esteem another warden. Although Warden Johnston had been rigorous, he gave captives his regard, which they admired. Warden Swope had a difficult clip gaining that regard, and no Oklahoman did the captives get adjusted to his manner of regulation, than he decided to go forth Alcatraz.
In 1955, Paul J. Madigan became the following warden of Alcatraz. Within a twelvemonth of his reaching, the flight efforts started up once more.
July 23, 1956- Floyd P. Wilson, a liquidator functioning a life sentence, grabbed 25 pess of cord from the dock during his work responsibility and disappeared beneath the dock. Below he began binding pieces of driftwood he had collected together to do a raft. When his absence was discovered, the dismaies were sounded. Wilson abandoned his raft thought and decided to touch the hunt squads by concealing in a cranny in the stone along the H2O & # 8217 ; s border. For about 12 hours he hid at that place, being repeatedly hurled against the stones by the disruptive moving ridges of San Francisco Bay. Finally, bruised, battered and hypothermic, Wilson gave up his effort and turned himself in.
The concluding warden to run Alcatraz came to the island in 1961. Olin Blackwell had no manner of cognizing that he would keep the differentiation of being the adult male in charge when one of the most imaginative and perchance successful flight efforts was hatched.
The most celebrated flight effort involved Frank Lee Morris, John William Anglin, and his brother Clarence Anglin. This great flight, which occurred on June 11, 1962, became the inspiration for many films, including Escape from Alcatraz starring Clint Eastwood.
Although non straight responsible, the 1962 flight did lead functionaries to closely measure the costs and benefits of maintaining Alcatraz operational. Ironically, the one thing that made it such a secure prison was besides the thing that was doing its death. The salt H2O from the bay had taken its toll on the island. The concrete in the cellhouse and other cardinal constructions on the island absorbed much of the salt and were rapidly disintegrating. This is one of the things that made the 1962 flight effort easier to draw off. It was estimated that it would take $ 5 million dollars to convey Alcatraz back up to standard. That was a monetary value ticket no 1 was in a haste to pay. A study besides looked at operating costs for Alcatraz, compared to other mainland prisons. The study found that while it cost $ 9.27/day to house and procure an inmate in mainland prisons, it cost $ 23.50/day to house and procure each inmate on Alcatraz.
In late 1962, Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy announced that, instead than concentrating entirely on detainment of captives, the federal prison system needed to larn to factor rehabilitation into the equation. To get down this new way in reform, Kennedy announced that a new maximal security prison would be built in Marion, IL. that twelvemonth.
Faced with the immense disbursal of daily operations, coupled with the $ 5 million dollar redevelopment monetary value ticket and Kennedy & # 8217 ; s displacement in punitory ideals, Alcatraz was closed on March 21, 1963.