Weapons As Aggression-Eliciting Stimuli Essay, Research Paper
The remainder of the universe has ever perceived the United States as an extraordinarily violent state. Now, the homefolks are get downing to portion that position. Pick up a newspaper, bend on the wireless or Television, skim through a magazine and one can see the force in America seems to pour out in a great, ageless watercourse. The cardinal footing of force is perfectly clear: the human capacity for aggression.
It has been long known among psychologists that aggressive-related points or cues can excite aggressive responses. Previous Wisconsin experiments showed that aggression is brought out upon when in the presence of those readily to arouse choler. Similarly, a survey conducted by Loew ( 1965 ) besides revealed that cues such as aggressive words elicited responses indicative of aggression. Although the & # 8220 ; guinea hogs & # 8221 ; in Loew & # 8217 ; s analyze were non antecedently angered, strong electric dazes were still given to each other ( Lepage & A ; Berkowitz, 1967 ) .
Similarly, Anthony Lepage & # 8217 ; s aim was to find whether external objects were associated with aggression. He used arms such as a rifle and a six-gun, alternatively. Lepage intended to happen out if arms affect an single & # 8217 ; s aggressive reactions than do other impersonal objects. The result of this survey will besides find if the gross revenues of pieces in the United States should be restricted. Furthermore, the intent of this survey is to find if situational cues govern an person & # 8217 ; s actions ( Lepage & A ; Berkowitz, 1967 ) .
The topics used for this survey were male undergraduate pupils at the University of Wisconsin. These pupils volunteered to be & # 8220 ; guinea hogs & # 8221 ; because of category demands. There were a sum of 139 topics, but merely 100 were kept for informations. The other 39 were disregarded because of complications due to misinformed figures and processs and malfunctioning of equipment ( Lepage & A ; Berkowitz, 1967 ) .
In order to transport out the experiment, all of the topics were broken into groups. Therefore, there were seven groups wholly. The six groups were the independent variables in which they were manipulated while the 7th group serves as a control group. Half of the males in the six manipulated groups were provoked to be angry at the experimenter & # 8217 ; s & # 8220 ; disguised & # 8221 ; Confederate while the others were non. In bend, they were besides given the opportunity to floor the Confederate. However, two-thirds of the topics had arms lying nearby the daze equipment before they administered the electric dazes. Of the two-thirds males, half were told the arms belonged to the Confederate while the others were told it belonged to a old individual in the room. The last tierce of the males had no arms nearby. The 7th group ( controlled group ) consist of enraged topics with badminton rackets and birds nearby the daze key. Before get downing the topics were informed that the experiment was a survey of physiological reactions to emphasize. Each person & # 8217 ; s public presentation was to be evaluated in the signifier of electric dazes with strength runing from 1 to 10. 1 intending good and 10 agencies really bad. The undertaking is to come up with thoughts of bettering gross revenues and so interchange them with the Confederate in order to be evaluated. Soon subsequently, the topic was told that he would be the first to have the dazes. After having the electric dazes from the Confederate, where it depended on what the experimenter & # 8217 ; s agenda of how many dazes to administrate, the topic was so asked to make full out a questionnaire to rate his temper. Then, it was the topic & # 8217 ; s turn to administrate the dazes. But ahead, one group in the enraged and non-angered provinces had no arms nearby the daze keys while two other groups had a scattergun and a.38 quality. Of the two groups, one was informed that the arms belong to the Confederate and the other to some old individual. The degree Fahrenheit
inal angered group, alternatively, had badminton rackets and birds. After the topic evaluated and administered the dazes to the Confederate, he was given another questionnaire sing temper to make full out. The topic was besides required to reply the unwritten inquiries about the experiment given by the experimenter. In the terminal, the degree of aggression indicated by the figure of dazes and the temper questionnaires were the dependent variables that resulted from the experiment ( Lepage & Berkowitz, 1967 ) .
The temper questionnaire filled out after the topic received dazes showed that there were important differences in choler rousing when each received different sums of electric dazes. The 1s that received the most dazes were angrier than those that received merely 1. In add-on, there is besides a important difference among the topics in the presence of arms. Weapons largely affected the 1s that received seven dazes. In kernel, the hypothesis was right: The presence of arms increases how sharply a individual behaves towards others.
The anger-provoked topics administered more electric dazes when a arm is nearby than non-aggressive objects such as badminton rackets and birds. However, they were no different than the enraged topics unexposed to arms. Furthermore, the enraged topic exposed to the impersonal object and the enraged topic unexposed to any objects were no different than the non-angered group unexposed to any objects. Sing the 2nd questionnaire filled out after the topic delivered the dazes, there was no differences between this one and the first 1 ( Lepage & A ; Berkowitz, 1967 ) .
Merely as predicted, any object or external feature that is associated with aggression can function as an aggression-enhancing situational cue. Such cues can hold really strong effects, increasing aggression among people who are in a impersonal temper every bit good as among those who have been angered by aggravation. Alternatively of the finger drawing the trigger on the gun, the survey indicates it is the trigger on the gun that is drawing the finger. It is non instinctual factors, but instead aggressive cues that can spur aggression ( Lepage & A ; Berkowitz, 1967 ) .
The survey further indicates that one of the factors to see in future research is the self-expectation that work forces were to move aggressive in the presence of guns ( Lepage & A ; Berkowitz, 1967 ) . That is, aggression is a by-product of a civilization that idealizes a tough, & # 8220 ; macho & # 8221 ; image. Although this was mistily supported by the unwritten studies given by the male topics, however, it was still implied. Last, since the male topics were non genuinely informed about the existent intent of the experiment, would the result turn out different if they were informed? Unlikely, because Lepage provinces that the research conducted by Allen & A ; Brag indicates fewer electric dazes would be administered even if the topics were informed of the true intent ( Lepage & A ; Berkowitz, 1967 ) .
In add-on, the consequences of this survey insinuate that a limitation in the handiness of pieces would cut down the homicide rates. Lepage points out Texas as an illustration of high homicide rates because of no prohibition when compared to other metropoliss ( Lepage & A ; Berkowitz, 1967 ) . However, this survey was conducted over 30 old ages ago. Timess have changed since. Nowadays, even though metropoliss such as Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York City have firearm limitations they still rank among the top in the class of high homicide rates. Lepage fails to acknowledge environmental factors in exposing aggression. Therefore, future research should turn to the above conditions when sing the factors that affects aggression.
Berkowitz, L. & A ; Lepage, A. ( 1967 ) . Weapons as aggression-eliciting stimulations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 7, 202-207.