Worldwide Industry Of Festivals Has Grown And Expanded Tourism Essay

A world-wide industry of festivals has grown and expanded since the 90 ‘s. Nowadays, festivals are recognized as one of the top turning types of leisure- and touristry – related phenomena ( Dimmock and Tiyce, 2001 ) . As Mintel International Group ( 2006 ) suggests, festivals are forecasted to turn a sum of 106 % in the following five old ages period. South Australian Tourism Commission ( 1997, p. 2 ) suggests an easy apprehensible significance of festival: ” Festivals must hold as a premier aim a maximal sum of people engagement, which must be an experience that is different from, or broader than twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours life. ” Festivals, and more specifically, music Festival Organizations are increasing in figure every twelvemonth worldwide. Harmonizing to Frey ( 1994 ) , the proviso of music festivals has developed based on a changeless addition in disposable incomes, accompanied by an augmented sum of clip offered for vacations. Furthermore, another characteristic that makes music Festivals so popular, is the fact that music Festivals form particular events which include a assortment of activities associated with the music ( Bowen and Daniels, 2005 ) , unlike concerts which provide chiefly unrecorded music public presentations, instead than assorted event attractive forces.

One of the most popular music Festivals in Greece for the last six old ages is the Synch Festival. The Synch Festival began its operation in 2004 at Lavrio Technological & A ; Cultural Park, an antique industrial country of typical beauty, aimed at conveying the Greek and international audience, in touch with modern sounds and images. Music, humanistic disciplines and new engineerings coexist in a two twenty-four hours festival. Keeping up with modernness, Synch offers its audience the possibility to see some of the most interesting facets of planetary civilization. Synch ” s chief class is music but despite its focal point on the assorted facets of the modern-day electronic scene Synch denies all sorts of boundary lines and separations that lead to restricting or rigidifying musical look. The instrumentalists take parting in the festival originate from different backgrounds and currents to portion their thoughts detering easy classification making musical loanblends that invariably evolve. It forms an uncommonly open-minded curatorial esthesia, tapping everything from experimental micro sound to minimal house and slaming techno to local outfits utilizing stone, wind, regional music and electronic elements. It ‘s got the perfect balance of industrial scene, a diverse multimedia plan, cutting border electronic Acts of the Apostless and authoritative unrecorded Acts of the Apostless.

Falassi ( 1987 ) argues that the corporate function of a festival is straight connected to values that a community looks upon as critical to its political orientation, such as societal individuality, historical continuity, and physical endurance. Additionally, harmonizing to Arcodia and Robb ( 2000 ) , a festival develops around the marker of alone occasions and around the celebration of of import events. Therefore, harmonizing to Usyal, Gahan and Martin ( 1993 ) a festival may be considered as the cultural resources of an country that make realizable the successful hosting of festival attendants. “ The phenomenal growing, coupled with increased consumer consciousness and pick, requires the industry to pull off the sector efficaciously and expeditiously to guarantee sustained development and growing in the hereafter ” ( Yeoman, Robertson, Ali-knight, 2004, p. nineteen ) . Therefore, harmonizing to Arcodia and Whitford ( 2010 ) festivals are spread outing worldwide as an increasing and lively sector of the touristry and leisure industry, which have major economic, socio-cultural, and political impacts on the finish and on the host groups, if managed decently.

All the manner through history, festivals have taken the signifiers of cultural traditions or have marked spiritual or historical occasions linked to the community presenting the festival ( Arcodia & A ; Robb, 2000 ) . Harmonizing to Earls ( 1993 ) historically, the manner festivals celebrated particular occasions was through art, ritual, and celebration ; they were seen as public meetings that make people ‘s joint wants and dreams world and offer a important event for a alone experience in their lives. The basic beginnings of this type of communal jubilation which has cultural importance to the host population ( Pardy, 1991 ) , can be traced back to the carnival of Europe ( Arcodia, Whitford, 2010 ) . “ The specifying feature of a particular event or festival is its transiency ” ( Gilbert and Lizotte, 1998, pp. 73 ) . This suggests that it would be hard to promote and keep the same sense of juncture and enthusiasm, if such an event was to be held more frequently. Goldblatt ( 1997 ) defines a festival as “ a particular event that recognizes a alone minute in clip with ceremonial and ritual to fulfill specific demands ” ( Goldblatt, 1997, pp.33 ) .According to Yeoman et Al. ( 2004 ) the word festival derives from banquet and means a clip of jubilation.

Yeoman, et Al. ( 2004 ) argue that the characteristics of festivals and events are alone, therefore no common theoretical account of direction tantrums them all. “ These features include intangibleness, production, frequently taking topographic point at the same clip as ingestion, and perishableness ” ( Yeoman et al. , 2004, pp.xx ) . Festivals and events have diverse degrees of operating costs and they fall into both the not- for -profit and profit- devising classs. They can range from locally based events, to big international festivals ( Yeoman, et Al, 2004 ) . Previous surveies on festival motive ( Uysal et al,1996, Nicholson and Pearce, 2001, Crompton and McKay, 1997 ) jointly demonstrate that the type of the festival is a important forecaster of motivations. As a consequence, farther geographic expedition on assorted types of festivals should be conducted, in order to better our apprehension of the relationship between the sort of the festival and the visitant motivations. A important feature of a festival is the sense of community, belonging and jubilation engendered by an event, which forms a communal and free societal meeting including a assortment of media such as humanistic disciplines, public presentations and shows ( Goldblatt, 1997 ) .

Cultural ingestion is an intangible pleasure-seeking experience. The consumer experience in cultural merchandises appears to hold as its chief elements the multisensory, antic and emotional features of any consumer experience ( Bourdeau, Paradis and Nyeck, 1997 ; Bourdeau, Decoster, Paradis ; Hirschman and Holbrook, 1982 ) . In other words, it can be perceived as a self-gratifying consumer experience with an experiential position ( Hirschman and Holbrook, 1982 ) . The intangible features of attending at a cultural festival modify the event into a consumer installation. Harmonizing to Bourdeau et Al. ( 2001 ) more by and large, it is a pleasance seeking experience in which consumers use their senses. “ It is merely after this hedonic experience, when they leave the festival site, that they develop feelings of satisfaction or dissatisfaction ” ( Bourdaeu, De coster Paradis,2001, pp.1 ) . However, the intangible, hedonic nature of a festival visit makes it hard for directors to find satisfaction degrees amongst clients. Directors of a cultural strategy must provide to the festival attendees an intangible, hedonic experience, sooner one that includes non merely the cardinal service but secondary services every bit good ( Eiglier and Langeard, 1987 ) . The cardinal service is the chief ground for go toing the festival. In the instance of a music festival, it is the content of the event, which is the music. Secondary services are those environing the event such as festival information services. Swan and Combs ( 1976 ) have suggested that when the show does non run into up to the consumer ‘s outlooks, dissatisfaction occurs, and when the content of the festival does run into their outlooks, satisfaction arises. Howard ( 1977, p. 57 ) describes satisfaction, from an anticipation theory position, as “ the consumer ‘s mental province of being adequately or inadequately rewarded for the forfeit he or she has undergone ” . The degree of sufficiency consequences from comparing past experience with the wages that was expected from the trade name ( Bourdeau, De Coster, Paradis, 2001 ) . One of the original service quality theories is that clients are satisfied when their judgement of the service they have received ( perceptual experience ) peers or exceeds what they expected: Customer Satisfaction ( CS ) = Perceptions ( P ) =Expectations ( Williams and Buswell,2003, pp.60 ) . This is identified as the spread analysis theory ( Zeithalm et al. , 1990 ) or Oliver ‘s anticipation disconfirmation ( Oliver, 1997 ) . Zeithaml et Al. considered that the characteristics that influence client ‘s formation of their outlooks are: word of oral cavity, personal demands, external communications, and past experience. Furthermore, Johnson and Mathews ( 1997 ) noted that the outlooks of a frequent user of a installation would rely more on the influence of yesteryear experiences than other agencies of information. Research workers have no manner of cognizing what a first-time user ‘s outlooks are based upon. Dale ( 1994a ) suggests that universe category experiences are valuable in explicating outlooks. Parasuraman et Al. ( 1988 ) attempted to clear up client outlooks, by proposing that they are what an organisation should offer.

( tabular array, pp. 67 )


The success of a festival is to a great extent dependent on the executing of a strategic selling program ; an apprehension of the relationship between a finish event and its visitants and the designation of mark markets are critical factors in the procedure ( Thomson and Schoefield, 2009 ) . Festival organisers are likely to asseverate that their primary end is to supply high quality, fulfilling experiences that visitants perceive to be good value in order to increase the chance of the visitants returning in the hereafter and/or urging the festival to others in their societal circle ( Lee, Petrick and Crompton, 2007 ) . Since competition among festivals and finishs is increasing, the demand for information on festivals,

specifically analysis of motives for go toing festivals and events

( Getz, 1993 ) , has become important. Actual attending itself may be attributed to assorted motivations or merely a individual motivation. In order for the event organisers to pull off to present a great experience, the event merchandise definition is a critical measure. The event merchandise is a alone blend of activities, which are the tools for accomplishing the overall event purposes and fulfilling client demands. “ Event design should be client orientated, and event organisers should make a mix that satisfies the largest figure of possible clients ” ( Salem, Jones, Morgan, 2004, pp.14, in Yeoman ) . Getz in 1997 argues that many events deficiency of a merchandise orientation, which means that they attempt to advance their event with no consideration for what prospective clients need, desire, and are willing to pay for. Hall in 1992 identifies three of import aims of event selling: to cognize what the clients need and what motivates them, to construct up merchandises that meet their demands and outlooks and to make a programme that communicates the event ‘s purpose and aims. Persons, take parting as audience at a festival or particular event want to fulfill their wonder about topographic point and people. Participants wish to emerge from the event with experiences to narrate back place. These people want to avoid insecure state of affairss, anxiousness, concerns, uncertainnesss, embarrassment, holding to do excessively many hard determinations, or being cared as computing machine figure and being made to experience an irritation. Harmonizing to Yeoman et Al. ( 2004 ) it is a selling stating that people do non purchase merchandises or services, they buy the outlook of benefits that these merchandises or services will supply them with.

No affair the chief purpose of the festival, there is a broad assortment of clients, each with dissimilar outlooks, and this impacts on the direction processes used for each single festival ( Yeoman, et al.,2004 ) . Motivations are a theoretical concept for the drive forces of human behavior ( Kroeber et Al, 2003 ) and clear up why people do what they do alternatively of taking another pick. Burch ( 1969 ) states that the personal motivational thrusts of persons are modified and readdressed by their workmates, household or friends. Therefore, it is obvious that the motivations to go to a festival may germinate and distinguish throughout person ‘s life, which enhances the demand for motivations to be invariably investigated. Pointless to state, event organisers might hold false feeling of their clients ‘ motive. Wicks and Fesenmaier ( 1993 ) examined the perceptual spread on client outlooks between visitant and sellers, placing those countries of the event that need betterment. The same equality besides has pertinence to the acknowledgment of the motive spread that may be between attendants and festival suppliers. As Fodness ( 1994 ) high spots, the motive stands for the major driving power in explicating human behavior, even though it is non the lone factor ( Fodness, 1994 ) . Harmonizing to Lee and Lee ( 2001 ) spliting festival markets through motives, allows event directors to detect the strengths and chances of the market and contributes in vouching their contentment. In instance festival visitants are diverse, a important selling instrument is the dividing of these visitants into groups and the comprehension of their characteristics based on festival motives. The cleavage allows event organisers to develop and back up event characteristics suggested and appreciated by specific visitant groups ( Formica & A ; Uysal, 1996 ) .

Furthermore, Crompton and McKay ( 1997 ) argue that event directors should do every attempt possible to to the full understand the motivations of festival attending in order to supply better services for them ; since motivations are a powerful forecaster of satisfaction and a important facet in the determination devising procedure, the geographic expedition of the visitants ‘ motivations can take to advanced degrees of attending. For illustration, Crompton and McKay ( 1997 ) explored festival attending motive for the undermentioned grounds: foremost, it gives the chance to fit the festival ‘s content to the visitants ‘ demands. Furthermore, it augments the visitants ‘ satisfaction degrees since their demands are met ; and lastly it increases the opportunities for the visitants to revisit the festival, a fact that plays a cardinal function for the economic viability of the festival. Schoefield and Thomson ( 2007 ) besides agree that it is critically of import to detect festival visitant motives and to mensurate consumers ‘ satisfaction degrees from the point of position of the consumer. They suggest that from a planning and direction position it is critical to find visitant satisfaction and behavioral purpose with regard to reiterate visits and to assist place the factors which affect visitant motive and their experiential results. ( Gelder, Robinson, 2009, ) Bowen and Daniels ( 2005 ) province that understanding why people go to music festivals can assist contrivers aline their selling attempts to stress the properties that best reflect the mission and ends of each event. Nicholson and Pearce ( 2001 ) believe that these factors will go progressively of import as the turning figure and diverseness of events, particularly festivals, lead to heightened competition, in peculiar when events are initiated or expanded to promote touristry and therefore hike local economic systems ( Daniels, 2004 ) . Apo Glastonbury pdf Getz ( 1993 ) besides emphasized the importance of analysing visitants ‘ motivations for go toing festivals and events. Identifying such motives is a requirement for be aftering event plans efficaciously and marketing them to visitants ( Crompton & A ; McKay, 1997 ) . Analysis of festival motives besides helps event directors to better place their festivals ( Scott, 1996 ) .


By understanding what thrusts and motivates engagement, the festival direction could likely derive better penetration into a scheme to keep attendants and to pull new 1s to the festival ( Van Zyl, 2006 ) . The primary purpose of the present research is hence to make full the spread in old research by finding what motivational factors push and pull visitants to go to the Synch Festival, held in Athens, Greece, and take part in it, and what are their outlooks. Comparisons will besides be made with the point of position of the director of the forming company. By understanding attendant ‘s motives you can give the chance to the event organisers to orient publicities and develop coveted services.

The research aims are:

To research and reexamine the literature relevant to the motive and outlooks of people go toing leisure events, with peculiar accent on music festivals.

To look into what motivates people to go to the Synch Festival and their outlooks of the event.

To research and reexamine the ways in which the Synch Festival is managed and organized, and in peculiar, the grade to which ( if at all ) client outlook and motive is considered.

To describe the findings of my research and, where appropriate, make recommendations and suggestions to the event organisers, every bit good as fill the literature spread every bit far as the geographic expedition of festival motives at a national degree, is concerned.

To accomplish this, the article is structured as follows: the literature reappraisal is followed by a description of the research methods, followed by a treatment of the findings, followed by the conclusion-discussion portion where recommendations will besides be made.